John 16

That ye should not be made to stumble ( ινα μη σκανδαλισθητε ). Purpose clause with negative  μη and first aorist passive of  σκανδαλιζω, common verb in the Synoptics (Mt 13:21) "the  σκανδαλα of faith, the stumblingblocks which trip up a disciple" (Bernard), in John only 6:61 and here (cf. 1Jo 2:10).

They shall put you out of the synagogues ( αποσυναγωγους ποιησουσιν υμας ). "They will make you outcasts from the synagogues." Predicate accusative of the compound adjective  αποσυναγωγος for which see 9:22; 12:42.

Yea ( αλλ' ). Use of  αλλα as co-ordinating conjunction, not adversative.

That ( ινα ) not in the sense of "when" ( οτε ), but as in 12:23 for God's purpose (Lu 2:34,  οπως ).

Shall think ( δοξη ). First aorist active subjunctive of  δοκεω. "So blind will he be" (Bernard).

That he offereth service unto God ( λατρειαν προσφερειν τω θεω ). Infinitive (present active) indirect discourse after  δοξη. For the phrase see Heb 6:1ff.; 8:3ff.; 9:7ff. The rabbis so felt when they crucified Jesus and when they persecuted the disciples (Ac 6:13; 7:57f.). No persecution is more bitter than when done by religious enthusiasts and bigots like the Spanish Inquisition.

Because ( οτ ). Definite reason for the religious hatred is ignorance of God and Christ as in 15:21.

Have I spoken ( λελαληκα ). Perfect active indicative as in 15:11; 16:1. Solemn repetition.

When their hour is come ( οταν ελθη η ωρα αυτων ). Indefinite temporal clause,  οταν with the second aorist active subjunctive of  ερχομα, "whenever their hour comes." The time appointed for these things.

Now that ( οτ ). Simply "that" (declarative conjunction in indirect discourse. Forewarned is to be forearmed. Cf. 13:19.

From the beginning ( εξ αρχης ). As in 6:64 but practically like  απ' αρχης in 15:27. While Christ was with them, he was the object of attack (15:18).

And none of you asketh me ( κα ουδεις εξ υμων ερωτα με ). Adversative use of  κα ="and yet" as in 1:10. Now that they realize that Jesus is going, the thoughts of the disciples turn on themselves and they cease asking the query of Peter (13:36).

Sorrow hath filled ( η λυπη πεπληρωκεν ). This word is not used of Jesus in the Gospels, in John only in this chapter. Perfect active indicative of  πληροω. They do not see their way to go on without Jesus.

It is expedient for you ( συμφερε υμιν ). Present active indicative of  συμφερω, old verb to bear together. See 11:50 where the phrase is used by Caiaphas "for us," here "for you" ( υμιν ethical dative).

That I go away ( ινα εγω απελθω ). Subject clause the subject of  συμφερε,  ινα and second aorist active subjunctive of  απερχομα. The reason ( γαρ ) for this startling statement follows.

If I go not away ( εαν μη απελθω ). Third-class condition with  εαν and the negative  μη with  απελθω as before.

Will not come ( ου μη ελθη ). Strong double negative with second aorist active subjunctive of  ερχομα. The Holy Spirit was, of course, already at work in the hearts of men, but not in the sense of witnessing as Paraclete which could only take place after Jesus had gone back to the Father.

But if I go ( εαν δε πορευθω ). Third-class condition again ( εαν and the first aorist passive subjunctive of  πορευομα ).

I will send ( πεμψω ). First person future as in 15.

And he ( κα εκεινος ). Emphatic demonstrative masculine pronoun.

When he is come ( ελθων ). Second aorist active participle of  ερχομα, "having come" or "coming."

Will convict the world ( ελεγξε τον κοσμον ). Future active of  ελεγχω, old word for confuting, convicting by proof already in 3:29; 8:46. Jesus had been doing this (7:7), but this is pre-eminently the work of the Holy Spirit and the most needed task today for our complacent age.

In respect of sin ( περ αμαρτιας ). Concerning the reality of sin as missing the mark and as wronging God and man, and not a mere slip or animal instinct or devoid of moral responsibility or evil. Some scientists and psychologists (Freudians and behaviourists) seem bent on destroying man's sense of sin. Hence crime waves even in youth.

And of righteousness ( κα περ δικαιοσυνης ). The opposite of "sin" and to be yearned for after conviction. Cf. Ro 1:19-3:21 about the necessity of the God-kind of righteousness and the Sermon on the Mount for Christ's idea of righteousness.

And of judgment ( κα περ κρισεως ). As certain to come as condemnation because of sin and the lack of righteousness. These are not played out motives in human life, but basal. For this ministry we have the help of the Paraclete. The Paraclete is here spoken of "not as man's advocate with God (1Jo 2:1), but as Christ's advocate with the world" (Bernard).

Because they believe not on me ( οτ ου πιστευουσιν εις εμε ). Without this conviction by the Paraclete such men actually have a pride of intellectual superiority in refusing to believe on Jesus.

And ye behold me no more ( κα ουκετ θεωρειτε με ). With the bodily eyes and without the Holy Spirit they are unable to behold Jesus with the spiritual vision (14:19). Without Christ they lose the sense of righteousness as is seen in the "new morals" (immorality, loose views of marriage, etc.).

Because the prince of this world hath been judged ( οτ ο αρχων του κοσμου τουτου κεκριτα ). Cf. 12:31; 14:31 for the title. Perfect passive indicative of  κρινω. He stands condemned. The sinful world is in his grip, but he will be cast out (12:31).

But ye cannot bear them now ( αλλ' ου δυνασθε βασταζειν αρτ ). The literal sense of  βασταζω, to bear, occurs in 12:6. For the figurative as here see Ac 15:10. The untaught cannot get the full benefit of teaching (1Co 3:1; Heb 5:11-14). The progressive nature of revelation is a necessity.

Howbeit ( δε ). One of the most delicate and difficult particles to translate, varying from "and" to "but."

When he, the Spirit of truth, is come ( οταν ελθη εκεινοσ, το πνευμα της αληθειας ). Indefinite relative clause ( οταν and the second aorist active subjunctive of  ερχομα, no futurum exactum), "whenever he comes." Note  εκεινος (masculine demonstrative pronoun, though followed by neuter  πνευμα in apposition. See 15:26 for this phrase about the Holy Spirit. He shall guide you ( οδηγησε υμας ). Future active of old verb  οδηγεω (from  οδηγος, from  οδος, way,  ηγεομα, to lead). See Ps 24:5 for "lead me into thy truth" ( οδηγησον με εις την αληθειαν σου ). Christ is both the Way and the Truth (14:6) and the Holy Spirit is the Guide who shows the way to the Truth (verse 14). This he does gradually. We are still learning the truth in Christ.

From himself ( αφ' εαυτου ). In this he is like Christ (1:26; 12:49; 14:10).

He shall declare ( αναγγελε ). Future active of  αναγγελλω, as in 4:25. See it also repeated in verse 14.

The things that are yet to come ( τα ερχομενα ). Neuter plural articular participle of  ερχομα, "the coming things." This phrase only here in the N.T. The things already begun concerning the work of the Kingdom (Lu 7:19ff.; 18:30) not a chart of future history. See Lu 7:20; Joh 6:14; 11:27 for  ο ερχομενος (the coming one) used of the Messiah.

He shall glorify me ( εκεινος εμε δοξασε ). This is the glory of the Holy Spirit, to glorify Jesus Christ.

For he shall take of mine ( οτ εκ του εμου λημψετα ). Future middle of  λαμβανω and a definite promise of the Spirit's guidance in interpreting Christ. One need only refer to Peter's sermon at pentecost after the coming of the Holy Spirit, to Peter's Epistles, to Paul's Epistles, to Hebrews, to John's Epistles, to see how under the tutelage of the Holy Spirit the disciples grew into the fulness of the knowledge of God in the face of Christ (2Co 6:4).

Therefore said I ( δια τουτο ειπον ). Jesus explains how and why the Holy Spirit can and will reveal to the disciples what they need to know further concerning him. They had failed so far to understand Christ's words about his death and resurrection. The Holy Spirit as Guide and Teacher will teach them what they can only receive and understand after the resurrection and ascension of Jesus.

A little while ( μικρον ). The brief period now till Christ's death as in 7:33; 13:33; 14:19.

Again a little while ( παλιν μικρον ). The period between the death and the resurrection of Jesus (from Friday afternoon till Sunday morning).

Ye shall see me ( οψεσθε με ). Future middle of  οπτομα, the verb used in 1:51; 16:22 as here of spiritual realities (Bernard), though  θεωρεω is so used in 20:14.

Some of the disciples ( εκ των μαθητων αυτου ). Ellipsis of time (some) before  εκ as in 7:40. Jesus seemed to contradict himself, for the disciples took both verbs in the same sense and were still puzzled over the going to the Father of 14:3. But they talk to one another, not to Jesus.

We know not what he saith ( ουκ οιδαμεν τ λαλε ). The questions to Jesus cease and the disciples frankly confess to each other their own ignorance.

Jesus perceived ( εγνω Ιησους ). Second aorist active indicative of  γινωσκω.

That they were desirous to ask him ( οτ ηθελον αυτον ερωταιν ). Imperfect active tense of  θελω in indirect discourse instead of the retention of the present  θελουσιν (the usual idiom), just like our English. Their embarrassment was manifest after four inquiries already (Peter, Thomas, Philip, Judas). So Jesus takes the initiative.

Ye shall weep and lament ( κλαυσετε κα θρηνησετε ). Future active of  κλαιω and  θρηνεω, both old words (for  κλαιω see Joh 11:31, for  θρηνεω see Mt 11:17), both words used of the loud lamentations so common in the east.

Shall rejoice ( χαρησετα ). Second future passive of  χαιρω in violent contrast. Picture the women on the way to the Cross (Lu 23:27,  εκοπτοντο κα εθρηνουν, two descriptive imperfects) and Mary Magdalene by the tomb (Joh 20:11,  κλαιουσα ).

Ye shall be sorrowful ( λυπηθησεσθε ). First future passive of  λυπεω, word for inward grief. See the change from sorrow to joy in 20:14-16 when "they disbelieved for joy" (Lu 24:41). So violent was the reaction on the sudden appearance of Jesus.

A woman ( η γυνη ). "The woman," any woman.

When she is in travail ( οταν τικτη ). Indefinite temporal clause, "whenever she is about to bear (or give birth),"  οταν and present active subjunctive of  τικτω, common O.T. image for pain.

Her hour is come ( ηλθεν η ωρα αυτης ). Second aorist active indicative, timeless aorist, "her hour" for giving birth which she knows is like a living death.

But when she is delivered of the child ( οταν δε γεννηση το παιδιον ). Indefinite temporal clause with  οταν and first aorist active subjunctive of  γενναω. "But whenever she bears the child."

The anguish ( της θλιψεως ). Genitive case after  μνημονευε of  θλιψις, usual word for tribulation (Mt 13:21).

Is born ( εγεννηθη ). First aorist (effective) passive indicative of  γενναω.

And ye therefore now ( κα υμεις ουν νυν ). See 8:38 for like emphasis on

ye ( υμεις ). The "sorrow" ( λυπην ) is like that of the mother in childbirth (real, but fleeting, with permanent joy following). The metaphor points, of course, to the resurrection of Jesus which did change the grief of the disciples to gladness, once they are convinced that Jesus has risen from the dead.

But I will see you again ( παλιν δε οψομα υμας ). Future middle of  οραω, to see. In verses 16,19 Jesus had said "ye shall see me" ( οψεσθε με ), but here we have one more blessed promise, "I shall see you," showing "that we are the objects of God's regard" (Westcott).

Shall rejoice ( χαρησετα ). Second future passive of  χαιρω.

Taketh away ( αιρε ). Present active indicative, futuristic present, but B D have  αρε the future active (shall take away). This joy is a permanent possession.

Ye shall ask me nothing ( εμε ουκ ερωτησετε ). Either in the sense of question (original meaning of  ερωταω ) as in verses 19,30 since he will be gone or in the sense of request or favours (like  αιτεω in this verse) as in 14:16; Ac 3:2. In verse 26 both  αιτεω and  ερωταω occur in this sense. Either view makes sense here.

If ye shall ask ( αν τ αιτησητε ). Third-class condition,  αν like  εαν with first aorist active subjunctive of  αιτεω. Note 14:26 for "in my name."

Hitherto ( εως αρτ ). Up till now the disciples had not used Christ's name in prayer to the Father, but after the resurrection of Jesus they are to do so, a distinct plea for parity with the Father and for worship like the Father.

May be fulfilled ( η πεπληρωμενη ). Periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of  πληροω in a purpose clause with  ινα. See 15:11 for some verb (first aorist passive subjunctive with  ινα ) and 1Jo 1:4 for same form as here, emphasizing the abiding permanence of the joy.

In proverbs ( εν παροιμιαις ). See on 10:6 for this word.

Shall tell ( απαγγελω ). Future active of  απαγγελλω, to report, correct text and not  αναγγελω (verses 13,14,15), as in 1Jo 1:2f.

Plainly ( παρρησια ). See on 7:13 for this word.

I say not ( ου λεγω ). "I speak not." Christ did pray for the disciples before his death (Joh 14:16; 17:9,15,24) and he prays also for sinners (Lu 23:34; 1Jo 2:1). Here it is the special love of God for disciples of Jesus (Joh 14:21,23; 17:23; 1Jo 4:19). Note  αιτεω and  ερωταω used in practically the same sense as in verse 23.

Loveth ( φιλε ). Present active indicative of  φιλεω, the word for warm and friendly love, here used of God's love for the disciples, while in 3:16  αγαπαω occurs of God's love for the world.

Ye have loved me ( πεφιληκατε ). Perfect active indicative of  φιλεω, "loved and still love me warmly."

And have believed ( πεπιστευκατε ). Perfect active indicative again. Recall the exhortation in 14:1.

I came out from the Father ( εξηλθον εκ του πατρος ). Definite act (aorist), the Incarnation, with repetition of  εκ (out of), while in verse 27 we have  παρα του πατρος εξηλθον ) with no practical distinction between  εκ and  παρα in resultant idea.

Am come ( εληλυθα ). Perfect active indicative of  ερχομα, as in 18:37. The Incarnation is now a permanent fact, once only a blessed hope (11:27). His leaving the world and going to the Father does not set aside the fact of the Incarnation. Both  αφιημ (I leave) and  πορευομα (I go) are futuristic present indicatives.

No proverb ( παροιμιαν ουδεμιαν ). No wayside saying, no dark saying. See 10:6; 16:25.

Now know we ( νυν οιδαμεν ). They had failed to understand the plain words of Jesus about going to the Father heretofore (16:5), but Jesus read their very thoughts (16:19f.) and this fact seemed to open their minds to grasp his idea.

Should ask ( ερωτα ). Present active subjunctive with  ινα in original sense of asking a question.

By this ( εν τουτω ). In Christ's supernatural insight into their very hearts.

From God ( απο θεου ). Compare  παρα του πατρος (verse 27) and  εκ του πατρος (verse 28),  απο, εκ, παρα all with the ablative of source or origin.

Do ye now believe? ( αρτ πιστευετε; ). For  αρτ (just now) see 9:19; 13:33,37. Their belief in Christ was genuine as far as it went, but perils await them of which they are ignorant. They are too self-confident as their despair at Christ's death shows.

Cometh ( ερχετα ). Futuristic present middle indicative of  ερχομα.

Yea, is come ( κα εληλυθεν ). Explanatory use of  κα and the perfect active indicative as in 12:23. The long-looked-for hour ( ωρα ) is so close that it has virtually begun. The time for the arrest of Jesus is near. See also 17:1.

That ( ινα ). See verse 2 for this same use of  ινα (not  οτε ) with  ερχομα ωρα.

Ye shall be scattered ( σκορπισθητε ). First aorist passive subjunctive of  σκορπιζω, used in 10:12 of sheep scampering from the wolf. Cf. Mt 12:30; Lu 11:33.

To his own ( εις τα ιδια ). "To his own home" as in 1:11; 19:27. So Appian VI. 23.

Shall leave ( αφητε ). Second aorist subjunctive of  αφιημ with  ινα.

And yet ( κα ). Clear case of  κα in adversative sense, not just "and."

That in me ye may have peace ( ινα εν εμο ειρηνην εχητε ). Present active subjunctive of  εχω, "that ye may keep on having peace in me," even when I am put to death, peace to be found nowhere save in me (14:27).

Be of good cheer ( θαρσειτε ). Imperative active from  θαρσος, courage (Ac 28:15). A word for courage in the face of danger, only here in John, but see Mt 9:2,22; Mr 10:49.

I have overcome the world ( εγω, νενικηκα τον κοσμον ). Perfect active indicative of  νικαω, to be victorious, to conquer. Always of spiritual victory in the N.T. See 1Jo 5:4f. This majestic proclamation of victory over death may be compared with  τετελεστα ( It is finished ) in Joh 19:30 as Christ died and with Paul's  υπερνικωμεν (we are more than conquerors) in Ro 8:37.

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