Luke 16

Unto the disciples ( κα προς τους μαθητας ). The three preceding parables in chapter 15 exposed the special faults of the Pharisees, "their hard exclusiveness, self-righteousness, and contempt for others" (Plummer). This parable is given by Luke alone. The  κα (also) is not translated in the Revised Version. It seems to mean that at this same time, after speaking to the Pharisees (chapter 15), Jesus proceeds to speak a parable to the disciples (16:1-13), the parable of the Unjust Steward. It is a hard parable to explain, but Jesus opens the door by the key in verse 9.

Which had a steward ( ος ηιχεν οικονομον ). Imperfect active, continued to have. Steward is house-manager or overseer of an estate as already seen in Lu 12:42.

Was accused ( διεβληθη ). First aorist indicative passive, of  διαβαλλω, an old verb, but here only in the N.T. It means to throw across or back and forth, rocks or words and so to slander by gossip. The word implies malice even if the thing said is true. The word  διαβολος (slanderer) is this same root and it is used even of women, she-devils (1Ti 3:11).

That he was wasting ( ως διασκορπιζων ). For the verb see on 15:13. The use of  ως with the participle is a fine Greek idiom for giving the alleged ground of a charge against one.

His goods ( τα υπαρχοντα αυτου ). "His belongings," a Lukan idiom.

What is this that I hear? ( τ τουτο ακουω; ). There are several ways of understanding this terse Greek idiom. The Revised Version (above) takes  τ to be equal to  τ εστιν τουτο ο ακουω; That is a possible use of the predicate  τουτο. Another way is to take  τ to be exclamatory, which is less likely. Still another view is that  τ is " Why": "Why do I hear this about thee?" See Ac 14:15 where that is the idiom employed.

Render ( αποδος ). Second aorist active imperative of  αποδιδωμ, Give back (and at once).

The account ( τον λογον ). The reckoning or report. Common use of  λογος.

Stewardship ( οικονομιας ). Same root as  οικονομος (steward). This demand does not necessarily mean dismissal if investigation proved him innocent of the charges. But the reason given implies that he is to be dismissed:

Thou canst no longer ( ου γαρ δυνη ).

Within himself ( εν εαυτω ). As soon as he had time to think the thing over carefully. He knew that he was guilty of embezzlement of the Master's funds.

Taketh away ( αφαιρειτα ). Present (linear) middle indicative of  αφαιρεω, old verb to take away. Here the middle present means, He is taking away for himself.

To beg I am not ashamed ( επαιτειν αισχυνομα ). The infinitive with  αισχυνομα means ashamed to begin to beg. The participle,  επαιτων αισχυνομα would mean, ashamed while begging, ashamed of begging while doing it.

I am resolved ( εγνων ). Second aorist active indicative of  γινωσκω. A difficult tense to reproduce in English. I knew, I know, I have known, all miss it a bit. It is a burst of daylight to the puzzled, darkened man: I've got it, I see into it now, a sudden solution.

What to do ( τ ποιησω ). Either deliberative first aorist active subjunctive or deliberative future active indicative.

When I am put out ( οταν μετασταθω ). First aorist passive subjunctive of  μεθιστημ, ( μετα, ιστημ ), old verb, to transpose, transfer, remove. He is expecting to be put out.

They may receive me ( δεξωντα ). First aorist middle subjunctive of  δεχομα, common verb. Subjunctive with final particle  ινα. He wishes to put the debtors under obligation to himself.

Debtors ( των χρεοφιλετων ). A late word. In the N.T. only here and Lu 7:41 from  χρεος, loan, and  οφειλετης, debtor. It is probable that he dealt with "each one" separately.

Measures ( βατους ). Transliterated word for Hebrew bath, between eight and nine gallons. Here alone in the N.T. Not the same word as  βατος ( bush ) in Lu 6:44.

Thy bond ( σου τα γραμματα ). Thy writings, thy contracts, thy note.

Quickly ( ταχεως ). It was a secret arrangement and speed was essential.

Measures ( κορους ). Another Hebrew word for dry measure. The Hebrew cor was about ten bushels. Data are not clear about the Hebrew measures whether liquid ( bath ) or dry ( cor ).

His lord commended ( επηινεσεν ο κυριος ). The steward's lord praised him though he himself had been wronged again (see verse 1 "wasting his goods").

The unrighteous steward ( τον οικονομον της αδικιας ). Literally, the steward of unrighteousness. The genitive is the case of genus, species, the steward distinguished by unrighteousness as his characteristic. See "the mammon of unrighteousness" in verse 9. See "the forgetful hearer" in Jas 1:25. It is a vernacular idiom common to Hebrew, Aramaic, and the Koine.

Wisely ( φρονιμως ). An old adverb, though here alone in the N.T. But the adjective  φρονιμος from which it comes occurs a dozen times as in Mt 10:16. It is from  φρονεω and that from  φρην, the mind (1Co 14:20), the discerning intellect. Perhaps "shrewdly" or "discreetly" is better here than "wisely." The lord does not absolve the steward from guilt and he was apparently dismissed from his service. His shrewdness consisted in finding a place to go by his shrewdness. He remained the steward of unrighteousness even though his shrewdness was commended.

For ( οτ ). Probably by this second  οτ Jesus means to say that he cites this example of shrewdness because it illustrates the point. "This is the moral of the whole parable. Men of the world in their dealings with men like themselves are more prudent than the children of light in their intercourse with one another" (Plummer). We all know how stupid Christians can be in their co-operative work in the kingdom of God, to go no further.

Wiser than ( φρονιμωτερο υπερ ). Shrewder beyond, a common Greek idiom.

By the mammon of unrighteousness ( εκ του μαμωνα της αδικιας ). By the use of what is so often evil (money). In Mt 6:24 mammon is set over against God as in Lu 16:13 below. Jesus knows the evil power in money, but servants of God have to use it for the kingdom of God. They should use it discreetly and it is proper to make friends by the use of it.

When it shall fail ( οταν εκλιπη ). Second aorist active subjunctive with  οταν, future time. The mammon is sure to fail.

That they may receive you into the eternal tabernacles ( ινα δεξωντα υμας εις τας αιωνιους σκηνας ). This is the purpose of Christ in giving the advice about their making friends by the use of money. The purpose is that those who have been blessed and helped by the money may give a welcome to their benefactors when they reach heaven. There is no thought here of purchasing an entrance into heaven by the use of money. That idea is wholly foreign to the context. These friends will give a hearty welcome when one gives him mammon here. The wise way to lay up treasure in heaven is to use one's money for God here on earth. That will give a cash account there of joyful welcome, not of purchased entrance.

Faithful in a very little ( πιστος εν ελαχιστω ). Elative superlative. One of the profoundest sayings of Christ. We see it in business life. The man who can be trusted in a very small thing will be promoted to large responsibilities. That is the way men climb to the top. Men who embezzle in large sums began with small sums. Verses 10-13 here explain the point of the preceding parables.

Faithful in the unrighteous mammon ( εν τω αδικω μαμωνα ). In the use of what is considered "unrighteous" as it so often is. Condition of the first class, "if ye did not prove to be" ( ε ουκ εγενεσθε ). Failure here forfeits confidence in "the true riches" ( το αληθινον ). There is no sadder story than to see a preacher go down by the wrong use of money, caught in this snare of the devil.

That which is your own ( το υμετερον ). But Westcott and Hort read  το ημετερον (our own) because of B L Origen. The difference is due to itacism in the pronunciation of  υ- and  η alike (long   ). But the point in the passage calls for "yours" as correct. Earthly wealth is ours as a loan, a trust, withdrawn at any moment. It belongs to another ( εν τω αλλοτριω ). If you did not prove faithful in this, who will give you what is really yours forever? Compare "rich toward God" (Lu 12:21).

Servant ( οικετης ). Household ( οικος ) servant. This is the only addition to Mt 6:24 where otherwise the language is precisely the same, which see. Either Matthew or Luke has put the  λογιον in the wrong place or Jesus spoke it twice. It suits perfectly each context. There is no real reason for objecting to repetition of favourite sayings by Jesus.

Who were lovers of money ( φιλαργυρο υπαρχοντες ). Literally, being lovers of money.  Φιλαργυρο is an old word, but in the N.T. only here and 2Ti 3:2. It is from  φιλος and  αργυρος.

Heard ( ηκουον ). Imperfect active, were listening (all the while Jesus was talking to the disciples (verses 1-13).

And they scoffed at him ( κα εξεμυκτηριζον ). Imperfect active again of  εκμυκτηριζω. LXX where late writers use simple verb. In the N.T. only here and Lu 23:35. It means to turn out or up the nose at one, to sneer, to scoff. The Romans had a phrase, naso adunco suspendere, to hang on the hooked nose (the subject of ridicule). These money-loving Pharisees were quick to see that the words of Jesus about the wise use of money applied to them. They had stood without comment the three parables aimed directly at them (the lost sheep, the lost coin, the lost son). But now they do not remain quiet while they hear the fourth parable spoken to the disciples. No words were apparently spoken, but their eyes, noses, faces were eloquent with a fine disdain.

That justify yourselves ( ο δικαιουντες εαυτους ). They were past-masters at that and were doing it now by upturned noses.

An abomination in the sight of God ( βδελυγμα ενωπιον του θεου ). See on Mt 24:15; Mr 13:14 for this LXX word for a detestable thing as when Antiochus Epiphanes set up an altar to Zeus in place of that to Jehovah. There is withering scorn in the use of this phrase by Jesus to these pious pretenders.

Entereth violently into it ( εις αυτην βιαζετα ). A corresponding saying occurs in Mt 11:12 in a very different context. In both the verb  βιαζετα, occurs also, but nowhere else in the N.T. It is present middle here and can be middle or passive in Matthew, which see. It is rare in late prose. Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 258) cites an inscription where  βιαζομα is reflexive middle and used absolutely. Here the meaning clearly is that everyone forces his way into the kingdom of God, a plea for moral enthusiasm and spiritual passion and energy that some today affect to despise.

One tittle ( μιαν κερεαν ). See on Mt 5:18.

Committeth adultery ( μοιχευε ). Another repeated saying of Christ (Mt 5:32; Mr 10:11f.; Mt 19:9f.). Adultery remains adultery, divorce or no divorce, remarriage or no marriage.

He was clothed ( ενεδιδυσκετο ). Imperfect middle of  ενδιδυσκω, a late intensive form of  ενδυω. He clothed himself in or with. It was his habit.

Purple ( πορφυραν ). This purple dye was obtained from the purple fish, a species of mussel or  μυρεξ (1Macc. 4:23). It was very costly and was used for the upper garment by the wealthy and princes (royal purple). They had three shades of purple (deep violet, deep scarlet or crimson, deep blue). See also Mr 15:17,20; Re 18:12.

Fine linen ( βυσσον ).

Byssus or Egyptian flax (India and Achaia also). It is a yellowed flax from which fine linen was made for undergarments. It was used for wrapping mummies. "Some of the Egyptian linen was so fine that it was called woven air" (Vincent). Here only in the N.T. for the adjective  βυσσινος occurs in Re 18:12; 19:8,14.

Faring sumptuously ( ευφραινομενος λαμπρως ).

Making merry brilliantly . The verb  ευφραινομα we have already had in 12:19; 15:23,25,32.  Λαμπρως is an old adverb from  λαμπρος, brilliant, shining, splendid, magnificent. It occurs here only in the N.T. This parable apparently was meant for the Pharisees (verse 14) who were lovers of money. It shows the wrong use of money and opportunity.

Beggar ( πτωχος ). Original meaning of this old word. See on Mt 5:3. The name Lazarus is from  Ελεαζαρος, "God a help," and was a common one. Lazar in English means one afflicted with a pestilential disease.

Was laid ( εβεβλητο ). Past perfect passive of the common verb  βαλλω. He had been flung there and was still there, "as if contemptuous roughness is implied" (Plummer).

At his gate ( προς τον πυλωνα αυτου ). Right in front of the large portico or gateway, not necessarily a part of the grand house, porch in Mt 26:71.

Full of sores ( ειλκωμενος ). Perfect passive participle of  ελκοω, to make sore, to ulcerate, from  ελκος, ulcer (Latin ulcus). See use of  ελκος in verse 21. Common in Hippocrates and other medical writers. Here only in the N.T.

With the crumbs that fell ( απο των πιπτοντων ). From the things that fell from time to time. The language reminds one of Lu 15:16 (the prodigal son) and the Syro-Phoenician woman (Mr 7:28). Only it does not follow that this beggar did not get the scraps from the rich man's table. Probably he did, though nothing more. Even the wild street dogs would get them also.

Yea, even the dogs ( αλλα κα ο κυνες ). For  αλλα κα see also 12:7; 24:22.  Αλλα can mean "yea," though it often means "but." Here it depends on how one construes Luke's meaning. If he means that he was dependent on casual scraps and it was so bad that even the wild dogs moreover were his companions in misery, the climax came that he was able to drive away the dogs. The other view is that his hunger was unsatisfied, but even the dogs increased his misery.

Licked his sores ( επελειχον τα ελκη αυτου ). Imperfect active of  επιλειχω, a late vernacular Koine verb, to lick over the surface. It is not clear whether the licking of the sores by the dogs added to the misery of Lazarus or gave a measure of comfort, as he lay in his helpless condition. "Furrer speaks of witnessing dogs and lepers waiting together for the refuse" (Bruce). It was a scramble between the dogs and Lazarus.

Was borne ( απενεχθηνα ). First aorist passive infinitive from  αποφερω, a common compound defective verb. The accusative case of general reference ( αυτον ) is common with the infinitive in such clauses after  εγενετο, like indirect discourse. It is his soul, of course, that was so borne by the angels, not his body.

Into Abraham's bosom ( εις τον ολπον Αβρααμ ). To be in Abraham's bosom is to the Jew to be in Paradise. In Joh 1:18 the Logos is in the bosom of the Father. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are in heaven and welcome those who come (Mt 8:11; 4Macc. 14:17). The beloved disciple reclined on the bosom of Jesus at the last passover (Joh 13:23) and this fact indicates special favour. So the welcome to Lazarus was unusual.

Was buried ( εταφη ). Second aorist (effective) passive of the common verb  θαπτω. Apparently in contrast with the angelic visitation to the beggar.

In Hades ( εν τω Hαιδη ). See on Mt 16:18 for discussion of this word. Lazarus was in Hades also for both Paradise (Abraham's bosom) and Gehenna are in the unseen world beyond the grave.

In torments ( εν βασανοις ). The touchstone by which gold and other metals were tested, then the rack for torturing people. Old word, but in the N.T. only here, Lu 16:28; Mt 4:24.

Sees ( ορα ). Dramatic present indicative. The Jews believed that Gehenna and Paradise were close together. This detail in the parable does not demand that we believe it. The picture calls for it.

From afar ( απο μακροθεν ). Pleonastic use of  απο as  μακροθεν means

from afar .

That he may dip ( ινα βαψη ). First aorist active subjunctive of  βαπτω, common verb, to dip.

In water ( υδατος ). Genitive, the specifying case, water and not something else.

Cool ( καταψυξη ). First aorist active subjunctive of  καταψυχω, a late Greek compound, to cool off, to make cool. Only here in the N.T. but common in medical books. Note perfective use of  κατα- (down). A small service that will be welcome.

For I am in anguish ( οτ οδυνωμα ). The active has a causative sense to cause intense pain, the middle to torment oneself (Lu 2:48; Ac 20:38), the passive to be translated as here. Common verb, but no other examples in the N.T.

Receivedst ( απελαβες ). Second aorist indicative of  απολαμβανω, old verb to get back what is promised and in full. See also Lu 6:34; 18:30; 23:41.

Evil things ( τα κακα ). Not "his," but "the evil things" that came upon him.

Thou art in anguish ( οδυνασα ). Like  καυχασα in Ro 2:17. They contracted  -αεσα without the loss of  ς. Common in the Koine.

Beside all this ( εν πασ τουτοις ).

In all these things (or regions).

Gulf ( χασμα ). An old word from  χαινω, to yawn, our chasm, a gaping opening. Only here in the N.T.

Is fixed ( εστηρικτα ). Perfect passive indicative of  στηριζω, old verb (see on Lu 9:51). Permanent chasm.

May not be able ( μη δυνωντα ). Present middle subjunctive of  δυναμα. The chasm is there on purpose ( that not ,  οπως μη ) to prevent communication.

That you send him ( ινα πεμψηις αυτον ). As if he had not had a fair warning and opportunity. The Roman Catholics probably justify prayer to saints from this petition from the Rich Man to Abraham, but both are in Hades (the other world). It is to be observed besides, that Abraham makes no effort to communicate with the five brothers. But heavenly recognition is clearly assumed. Dante has a famous description of his visit to the damned (Purg. iii, 114).

That he may testify ( οπως διαμαρτυρητα ). An old verb for solemn and thorough ( δια- ) witness. The Rich Man labours under the delusion that his five brothers will believe the testimony of Lazarus as a man from the dead.

Let them hear them ( ακουσατωσαν αυτων ). Even the heathen have the evidence of nature to show the existence of God as Paul argues in Romans so that they are without excuse (Ro 1:20f.).

They will repent ( μετανοησουσιν ). The Rich Man had failed to do this and he now sees that it is the one thing lacking. It is not wealth, not poverty, not alms, not influence, but repentance that is needed. He had thought repentance was for others, not for all.

Neither will they be persuaded ( ουδ' πεισθησοντα ). First future passive of  πειθω. Gressmann calls attention to the fact that Jesus is saying this in the conclusion of the parable. It is a sharp discouragement against efforts today to communicate with the dead. "Saul was not led to repentance when he saw Samuel at Endor nor were the Pharisees when they saw Lazarus come forth from the tomb. The Pharisees tried to put Lazarus to death and to explain away the resurrection of Jesus" (Plummer). Alford comments on the curious fact that Lazarus was the name of the one who did rise from the dead but whose return from the dead "was the immediate exciting cause of their (Pharisees) crowning act of unbelief."

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