Luke 21

And he looked up ( Αναβλεψας δε ). He had taken his seat, after the debate was over and the Sanhedrin had slunk away in sheer defeat, "over against the treasury" (Mr 12:41). The word for "treasury" ( γαζοφυλακιον ) is a compound of  γαζα (Persian word for royal treasury) and  φυλακη guard or protection. It is common in the LXX, but in the N.T. only here and Mr 12:41,43; Joh 8:20. Jesus was watching (Mr 12:41) the rich put in their gifts as a slight diversion from the intense strain of the hours before.

Poor ( πενιχραν ). A rare word from  πενης ( πενομα, to work for one's living). Latin penuria and Greek  πειναω, to be hungry are kin to it. Here only in the N.T. Mr 12:42 has  πτωχη, a more common word from  πτωσσω, to be frightened, to strike and hide from fear, to be in beggary. And Luke uses this adjective also of her in verse 3.

More than they all ( πλειον παντων ). Ablative case after the comparative  πλειον.

All these did cast ( παντες ουτο εβαλον ). Constative second aorist active indicative covering the whole crowd except the widow.

Living ( βιον ). Livelihood as in Mr 12:44, not  ζωην, principle of life.

As some spake ( τινων λεγοντων ). Genitive absolute. The disciples we know from Mr 13:1; Mt 24:1.

How ( οτ ). Literally, "that."

It was adorned ( κεκοσμητα ). Perfect passive indicative, state of completion, stands adorned, tense retained in indirect discourse, though English has to change it.  Κοσμεω, old and common verb for orderly arrangement and adorning.

With goodly stones and offerings ( λιθοις καλοις κα αναθημασιν ). Instrumental case. Some of these stones in the substructure were enormous. "The columns of the cloister or portico were monoliths of marble over forty feet high" (Plummer). Cf. Josephus, War, V.5. The word  αναθημα (here only in the N.T.) is not to be confused with  αναθεμα from the same verb  ανατιθημ, but which came to mean a curse (Ga 1:8; Ac 23:14). So  αναθεμα came to mean devoted in a bad sense,  αναθημα in a good sense. "Thus knave, lad, becomes a rascal; villain, a farmer, becomes a scoundrel; cunning, skilful, becomes crafty" (Vincent). These offerings in the temple were very numerous and costly (2Macc. 3:2-7) like the golden vine of Herod with branches as tall as a man (Josephus, Ant. XV. ii.3).

As for these things ( ταυτα ). Accusative of general reference.

One stone upon another ( λιθος επ λιθω ). Stone upon stone (locative). Here both Mr 13:2; Mt 24:2 have  επ λιθον (accusative). Instead of  ουκ αφεθησετα (future passive) they both have  ου μη αφεθη (double negative with aorist passive subjunctive). It was a shock to the disciples to hear this after the triumphal entry.

That ye be not led astray ( μη πλανηθητε ). First aorist passive subjunctive with  μη (lest). This verb  πλαναω occurs here only in Luke though often in the rest of the N.T. (as Mt 24:4,5,11,24, which see). Our word planet is from this word.

The time is at hand ( ο καιρος ηγγικεν ). Just as John the Baptist did of the kingdom (Mt 3:2) and Jesus also (Mr 1:15).

Go ye not after them ( μη πορευθητε οπισω αυτων ). First aorist passive subjunctive with  μη. A needed warning today with all the false cries in the religious world.

Be not terrified ( μη πτοηθητε ). First aorist passive subjunctive with  μη from  πτοεω an old verb to terrify, from  πτοα, terror. In the N.T. only here and Lu 24:37.

First ( Πρωτον ). It is so easy to forget this and to insist that the end is "immediately" in spite of Christ's explicit denial here. See Mt 24:4-42; Mr 13:1-37 for discussion of details for Lu 21:8-36, the great eschatological discourse of Jesus

Famines and pestilences ( λοιμο κα λιμο ). Play on the two words pronounced just alike in the Koine (itacism).

And terrors ( φοβηθρα τε ). The use of  τε ... τε in this verse groups the two kinds of woes. This rare word  φοβηθρα is only here in the N.T. It is from  φοβεω, to frighten, and occurs only in the plural as here.

But before all these things ( προ δε τουτων παντων ). In Mr 13:8; Mt 24:8 these things are termed "the beginning of travail." That may be the idea here. Plummer insists that priority of time is the point, not magnitude.

Bringing you ( απαγομενους ). Present passive participle from  απαγω, an old verb to lead off or away. But here the participle is in the accusative plural, not the nominative like  παραδιδοντες (present active participle, delivering you up), agreeing with  υμας not expressed the object of  παραδιδοντες, "you being brought before or led off." "A technical term in Athenian legal language" (Bruce).

It shall turn unto you ( αποβησετα υμιν ). Future middle of  αποβαινω. It will come off, turn out for you (dative of advantage).

For a testimony ( εις μαρτυριον ). To their loyalty to Christ. Besides, "the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church."

Not to meditate beforehand ( μη προμελεταιν ). The classical word for conning a speech beforehand. Mr 13:11 has  προμεριμναω, a later word which shows previous anxiety rather than previous preparation.

How to answer ( απολογηθηνα ). First aorist passive infinitive. It is the preparation for the speech of defence (apology) that Jesus here forbids, not the preparation of a sermon.

Your adversaries ( ο αντικειμενο υμιν ). Those who stand against, line up face to face with (note  αντι- ).

To withstand or to gainsay ( αντιστηνα η αντειπειν ). Two second aorist active infinitives with  αντι- in composition again. But these "antis" will go down before the power of Christ.

Shall they cause to be put to death ( θανατωσουσιν ). Future active of  θανατοω, to put to death or to make to die (causative). Either makes sense here. Old and common verb.

Not a hair of your head shall perish ( θριξ εκ της κεφαλης υμων ου μη απολητα ). Only in Luke. Second aorist middle subjunctive of  απολλυμ with  ου μη (double negative). Jesus has just said that some they will put to death. Hence it is spiritual safety here promised such as Paul claimed about death in Php 1:21.

Ye shall win ( κτησεσθε ). Future middle of  κταομα, to acquire. They will win their souls even if death does come.

Compassed with armies ( κυκλουμενην υπο στρατοπεδων ). Present passive participle of  κυκλοω, to circle, encircle, from  κυκλος, circle. Old verb, but only four times in N.T. The point of this warning is the present tense, being encircled. It will be too late after the city is surrounded. It is objected by some that Jesus, not to say Luke, could not have spoken (or written) these words before the Roman armies came. One may ask why not, if such a thing as predictive prophecy can exist and especially in the case of the Lord Jesus. The word  στρατοπεδων ( στρατος, army,  πεδον, plain) is a military camp and then an army in camp. Old word, but only here in the N.T.

Then know ( τοτε γνωτε ). Second aorist active imperative of  γινωσκω. Christians did flee from Jerusalem to Pella before it was too late as directed in Lu 21:21; Mr 13:14f.; Mt 24:16f.

That may be fulfilled ( του πλησθηνα ). Articular infinitive passive to express purpose with accusative of general reference. The O.T. has many such warnings (Ho 9:7; De 28:49-57, etc.).

Edge of the sword ( στοματ μαχαιρης ). Instrumental case of  στοματ which means "mouth" literally (Ge 34:26). This verse like the close of verse 22 is only in Luke. Josephus (War, VI. 9.3) states that 1,100,000 Jews perished in the destruction of Jerusalem and 97,000 were taken captive. Surely this is an exaggeration and yet the number must have been large.

Shall be led captive ( αιχμαλωτισθησοντα ). Future passive of  αιχμαλωτιζω from  αιχμη, spear and  αλωτος ( αλισκομα ). Here alone in the literal sense in the N.T.

Shall be trodden under foot ( εστα πατουμενη ). Future passive periphrastic of  πατεω, to tread, old verb.

Until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled ( αχρ ου πληρωθωσιν καιρο εθνων ). First aorist passive subjunctive with  αχρ ου like  εως ου. What this means is not clear except that Paul in Ro 11:25 shows that the punishment of the Jews has a limit. The same idiom appears there also with  αχρ ου and the aorist subjunctive.

Distress ( συνοχη ). From  συνεχω. In the N.T. only here and 2Co 2:4. Anguish.

In perplexity ( εν απορια ). State of one who is  απορος, who has lost his way ( α privative and  πορος ). Here only in the N.T. though an old and common word.

For the roaring of the sea ( ηχους θαλασσης ). Our word echo (Latin echo) is this word  ηχος, a reverberating sound. Sense of rumour in Lu 4:37.

Billows ( σαλου ). Old word  σαλος for the swell of the sea. Here only in the N.T.

Men fainting ( αποψυχοντων ανθρωπων ). Genitive absolute of  αποψυχω, to expire, to breathe off or out. Old word. Here only in N.T.

Expectation ( προσδοκιας ). Old word from  προσδοκαω, to look for or towards. In the N.T. only here and Ac 12:11.

The world ( τη οικουμενη ). Dative case, "the inhabited" (earth,  γη ).

And then shall they see ( κα τοτε οψοντα ). As much as to say that it will be not till then. Clearly the promise of the second coming of the Son of man in glory here (Mr 13:26f.; Mt 24:30f.) is pictured as not one certain of immediate realization. The time element is left purposely vague.

Look up ( ανακυψατε ). First aorist active imperative of  ανακυπτω, to raise up. Here of the soul as in Joh 8:7,10, but in Lu 13:11 of the body. These the only N.T. examples of this common verb.

Redemption ( απολυτρωσις ). Act of redeeming from  απολυτροω. The final act at the second coming of Christ, a glorious hope.

The fig tree, and all the trees ( την συκην κα παντα τα δενδρα ). This parable of the fig-tree (Mr 13:28-32; Mt 24:32-35) Luke applies to "all the trees." It is true about all of them, but the fig tree was very common in Palestine.

Shoot forth ( προβαλωσιν ). Second aorist active subjunctive of  προβαλλω, common verb, but in the N.T. only here and Ac 19:33.

Summer ( θερος ). Not harvest, but summer. Old word, but in the N.T. only here (Mr 13:28; Mt 24:32).

Coming to pass ( γινομενα ). Present middle participle of  γινομα and so descriptive of the process.

Nigh ( εγγυς ). The consummation of the kingdom is here meant, not the beginning.

This generation ( η γενεα αυτη ). Naturally people then living.

Shall not pass away ( ου μη παρελθη ). Second aorist active subjunctive of  παρερχομα. Strongest possible negative with  ου μη.

Till all things be accomplished ( εως αν παντα γενητα ). Second aorist middle subjunctive of  γινομα with  εως, common idiom. The words give a great deal of trouble to critics. Some apply them to the whole discourse including the destruction of the temple and Jerusalem, the second coming and the end of the world. Some of these argue that Jesus was simply mistaken in his eschatology, some that he has not been properly reported in the Gospels. Others apply them only to the destruction of Jerusalem which did take place in A.D. 70 before that generation passed away. It must be said for this view that it is not easy in this great eschatological discourse to tell clearly when Jesus is discussing the destruction of Jerusalem and when the second coming. Plummer offers this solution: "The reference, therefore, is to the destruction of Jerusalem regarded as the type of the end of the world."

My words shall not pass away ( ο λογο μου ου μη παρελευσοντα ). Future middle indicative with  ου μη, a bit stronger statement than the subjunctive. It is noteworthy that Jesus utters these words just after the difficult prediction in verse 32.

Lest haply your hearts be overcharged ( μη ποτε βαρηθωσιν α καρδια υμων ). First aorist passive subjunctive of  βαρεω, an old verb to weigh down, depress, with  μη ποτε.

With surfeiting ( εν κρεπαλη ). A rather late word, common in medical writers for the nausea that follows a debauch. Latin crapula, the giddiness caused by too much wine. Here only in the N.T.

Drunkenness ( μεθη ). From  μεθυ (wine). Old word but in the N.T. only here and Ro 13:13; Ga 5:21.

Cares of this life ( μεριμναις βιωτικαις ). Anxieties of life. The adjective  βιωτικος is late and in the N.T. only here and 1Co 6:3f.

Come on you ( επιστη ). Second aorist active subjunctive of  εφιστημ, ingressive aorist. Construed also with  μη ποτε.

Suddenly ( εφνιδιος ). Adjective in predicate agreeing with  ημερα (day).

As a snare ( ως παγις ). Old word from  πηγνυμ, to make fast a net or trap. Paul uses it several times of the devil's snares for preachers (1Ti 3:7; 2Ti 2:26).

But watch ye ( αγρυπνειτε δε ).  Αγρυπνεω is a late verb to be sleepless ( α privative and  υπνος, sleep). Keep awake and be ready is the pith of Christ's warning.

That ye may prevail to escape ( ινα κατισχυσητε εκφυγειν ). First aorist active subjunctive with  ινα of purpose. The verb  κατισχυω means to have strength against (cf. Mt 16:18). Common in later writers.  Εκφυγειν is second aorist active infinitive, to escape out.

To stand before the Son of man ( σταθηνα εμπροσθεν του υιου του ανθρωπου ). That is the goal. There will be no dread of the Son then if one is ready.  Σταθηνα is first aorist passive infinitive of  ιστημ.

Every day ( τας ημερας ). During the days, accusative of extent of time.

Every night ( τας νυκτας ). "During the nights," accusative of extent of time.

Lodged ( ηυλιζετο ). Imperfect middle, was lodging,  αυλιζομα from  αυλη (court).

Came early ( ωρθριζεν ). Imperfect active of  ορθριζω from  ορθρος, late form for  ορθρευω, to rise early. Only here in the N.T.

Copyright information for RWP