A prisoner of Christ Jesus ( δεσμιος Χριστου Ιησου ). As verse 9 and in Eph 3:1; 4:1. Old adjective from δεσμος (bond, δεω, to bind). Apparently used here on purpose rather than αποστολος as more effective with Philemon and a more touching occasion of pride as Paul writes with his manacled right hand.
Timothy ( Τιμοθεος ). With Paul in Ephesus (Ac 19:22) and probably known to Philemon. Associated with Paul also in I and II Thess., II Cor., Philipp., Col.
To Philemon ( Φιλημον ). A resident of Colossae and a convert of Paul's (verse 19), perhaps coming to Ephesus while Paul was there when his ministry had so much influence over the province of Asia (Ac 19:9f., 26; 1Co 16:19). The name Philemon occurs in the legend of Baucis and Philemon (Ovid's Metamorphoses), but with no connection with the brother here. He was active in the church in Colossae ("our co-worker," συνεργω ημων ) and was beloved ( αγαπητω ) by Paul.
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