Revelation of John 17

I will show thee ( δειξω σο ). Future active of  δεικνυμ. It is fitting that one of the seven angels that had the seven bowls should explain the judgment on Babylon (16:19) already pronounced (14:8). That is now done in chapters Re 17; 18.

The judgment of the great harlot ( το κριμα της πορνης της μεγαλης ). The word  κριμα is the one used about the doom of Babylon in Jer 51:9. Already in 14:8 Babylon is called the harlot.  Πορνης is the objective genitive, "the judgment on the great harlot."

That sitteth upon many waters ( της καθημενης επ υδατων πολλων ). Note triple use of the article  της. In Jer 51:13 we have  εφ' υδασ πολλοις (locative in place of genitive as here). Babylon got its wealth by means of the Euphrates and the numerous canals for irrigation. Rome does not have such a system of canals, but this item is taken and applied to the New Babylon in 17:15. Nahum (Na 3:4) calls Nineveh a harlot, as Isaiah (Isa 23:16f.) does Tyre.

The kings of the earth ( ο βασιλεις της γης ). Repeated in 1:5; 6:15; 17:18; 18:3,9; 19:19; 21:24 and "the kings of the inhabited earth" (16:14) either for human rulers in general or the vassal kings absorbed by the Roman Empire.

Committed fornication ( επορνευσαν ). First aorist active indicative of  πορνευω. "In purchasing the favour of Rome by accepting her suzerainty and with it her vices and idolatries" (Swete).

Were made drunken ( εμεθυσθησαν ). First aorist passive indicative of  μεθυσκω, old verb (from  μεθυ ), as in Lu 12:45, here only in the Apocalypse. Cf. Isa 51:7 and  πεποτικεν in Re 14:8. See 18:3.

He carried me away ( απηνεγκεν με ). Second aorist active indicative of  αποφερω, to bear away, prophetic aorist. This verb is used of angels at death (Lu 16:22) or in an ecstasy (Re 21:10 and here).

In the Spirit ( εν πνευματ ). Probably his own spirit, though the Holy Spirit is possible (1:10; 4:2; 21:10), without Paul's uncertainty (2Co 12:2). Cf. Eze 3:14f.; 8:3; 11:24.

Into a wilderness ( εις ερημον ). In Isa 21:1 there is  το οραμα της ερημου (the vision of the deserted one, Babylon), and in Isa 14:23 Babylon is called  ερημον. John may here picture this to be the fate of Rome or it may be that he himself, in the wilderness (desert) this side of Babylon, sees her fate. In 21:10 he sees the New Jerusalem from a high mountain.

Sitting ( καθημενην ). Present middle participle of  καθημα as in verse 1. "To manage and guide the beast" (Vincent).

Upon a scarlet-coloured beast ( επ θηριον κοκκινον ). Accusative with  επ here, though genitive in verse 1. Late adjective (from  κοκκος, a parasite of the ilex coccifera), a crimson tint for splendour, in Re 17:3,4; 18:12,16; Mt 27:28; Heb 9:19.

Full of names of blasphemy ( γεμοντα ονοματα βλασφημιας ). See 13:1 for "names of blasphemy" on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover the whole body of the beast (the first beast of 13:1; 19:20). The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified with masculine participles instead of neuter, like  θηριον ( γεμοντα accusative singular,  εχων nominative singular, though some MSS. read  εχοντα ), construction according to sense in both instances. The verb  γεμω always has the genitive after it in the Apocalypse (4:6,8; 5:8; 15:7; 17:4; 21:9) save here and apparently once in 17:4.

Was arrayed ( ην περιβεβλημενη ). Periphrastic past perfect indicative of  περιβαλλω, to fling round one.

In purple and scarlet ( πορφυρουν κα κοκκινον ). Accusative retained after this passive verb of clothing, as so often.  Πορφυρους is old adjective for purple (from  πορφυρα ), in N.T. only here and Joh 19:2,5. See preceding verse for  κοκκινος.

Decked ( κεχρυσωμενη ). Perfect passive participle of  χρυσοω, old verb, to gild, to adorn with gold, here alone in N.T.

With gold and precious stone and pearls ( χρυσιω κα λιθω τιμιω κα μαργαριταις ). Instrumental case.  Χρυσιω is cognate with the participle.  Λιθω τιμιω is collective (18:12,16; 21:19). There is a  ζευγμα also with  μαργαριταις (18:12,16; 21:21), for which word see Mt 7:6. Probably John is thinking of the finery of the temple prostitutes in Asia Minor.

Full of abominations ( γεμον βδελυγματων ). Agreeing with  ποτηριον, "cup" (neuter singular accusative). Some MSS. read  γεμων (nominative masculine like  εχων in verse 3, quite irregular). For  βδελυγματων (genitive after  γεμον ) see Mt 24:15; (Mr 13:14), common in the LXX for idol worship and its defilements (from  βδελυσσω, to render foul), both ceremonial and moral. See Jer 15:7.

Even the unclean things of her fornication ( κα τα ακαθαρτα της πορνειας αυτης ). Either the accusative after  γεμον as in verse 3 (and full of the unclean things of her fornication) or the object of  εχουσα, like  ποτηριον.

Upon her forehead a name written ( επ το μετωπον αυτης ονομα γεγραμμενον ). Roman harlots wore a label with their names on their brows (Seneca, Rhet. I. 2. 7; Juvenal VI. 122f.), and so here. In 19:16 Christ has a name on his garments and on his thigh, while in 14:1; 22:4 the redeemed have the name of God on their foreheads. There is undoubtedly a contrast between this woman here and the woman in chapter Re 12.

Mystery ( μυστηριον ). Either in apposition with  ονομα or as part of the inscription on her forehead. In either case the meaning is the same, that the name Babylon is to be interpreted mystically or spiritually (cf.  πνευματικως 11:8) for Rome.

The Mother of the Harlots and of the Abominations of the Earth ( Hη Μητηρ των Πορνων κα των Βδελυγματων της Γης ). The Metropolis of the Empire is the mother of harlotry and of the world's idolatries. Charles quotes Tacitus (Ann. XV. 44) about Rome as the city "quo cuncta undique atrocia aut pudenda confluunt celebranturque_."

Drunken with the blood of the saints ( μεθυουσαν εκ του αιματος των αγιων ). Present active feminine accusative singular participle of  μεθυω, old verb, to be drunk (Mt 24:49).

Of the martyrs of Jesus ( των μαρτυρων Ιησου ). "Witnesses" (2:13) for Jesus (objective genitive) unto blood (16:6; 18:24) and so martyrs in the modern sense of the word. "Drunk with blood" is a common idea with the ancients (Euripides, Josephus, Philo, Cicero, Pliny).

With a great wonder ( θαυμα μεγα ). Cognate accusative with  εθαυμασα.

I will tell thee the mystery ( εγω ερω σο το μυστηριον ). The angel gives his interpretation of the woman and the beast (17:7-18).  Ερω is the future active of  ειπον (defective verb), to tell, to say.

Was and is not ( ην κα ουκ εστιν ). Imperfect and present of  ειμ, an apparent antithesis to  ο ην κα ο ων of 1:4. This is a picture of the beast of 13:1ff. which the woman is riding, but no longer just the empire, but one of the emperors who died ( ουκ εστιν, is not).

And is about to come up out of the abyss ( κα μελλε αναβαινειν εκ της αβυσσου ). That is, he is going to come to life again.

And to go into perdition ( κα εις απωλειαν υπαγε ). So (and he goes into perdition) the best MSS. read rather than the infinitive  υπαγειν. Most interpreters see here an allusion to the "Nero redivivus" expectancy realized in Domitian, who was ruling when John wrote and who was called Nero redivivus.

Shall wonder ( θαυμασθησοντα ). First future passive (deponent) of  θαυμαζω, with which compare  εθαυμασθη in 13:3. John had wondered ( εθαυμασα ) in verse 6 "with the amazement of a horrible surprise; the world will wonder and admire" (Swete).

Whose name ( ων ονομα ). Singular  ονομα, like  πτωμα in 11:8. See 13:8 for the same description of those who worship the beast and for discussion of details.

When they behold ( βλεποντων ). Genitive plural of the present active participle of  βλεπω, agreeing with  ων (genitive relative) rather than with  ο κατοικουντες (nominative just before  ων ).

How that ( οτ ). "Namely that."

He was, and is not, and shall come ( ην κα ουκ εστιν κα παρεστα ). Repetition of what is in verse 7 with  παρεστα (future of  παρειμ, from which  παρουσια comes) in place of  μελλε, "parody of the divine name" (Charles) in 1:4,8; 4:8, "as the hellish antitype of Christ." The Neronic Antichrist has also a  παρουσια.

Here is the mind which hath wisdom ( Hωδε ο νους ο εχων σοφιαν ). "Here is the intelligence which has wisdom" (Charles). A variation of 13:18, but the same idea.

Seven mountains ( επτα ορη ). Rome was known as the city on seven hills (Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Cicero, etc.).

On which ( οπου--επ' αυτων ). "Where--upon them." Pleonasm like  οπου--εκε in 12:6. In 13:1ff. it is the beast that has the seven heads, while here the woman riding the beast has seven heads, a slight change in the symbolism, and the heads are further identified as kings.

Seven kings ( βασιλεις επτα ). This is another change in the symbolism. The identification of these seven kings is one of the puzzles of the book.

The five are fallen ( ο πεντε επεσαν ). Second aorist active indicative of  πιπτω with the  -αν ending. Common for the downfall of kings (Eze 29:5; 30:6; Isa 21:9, etc.). See 2Sa 3:38.

The one is ( ο εις εστιν ). The one when this vision is dated.

The other is not yet come ( ο αλλος ουπω ηλθεν ). Prophetic second aorist active of  ερχομα. Charles takes this as the date of this "source" or part of the Apocalypse. But John could himself have used this language in the time of Domitian even if he was the one who had not yet come. The difficulty about counting these emperors is that Galba, Otho, Vitellius reigned so briefly that they hardly merit being included.

When he cometh ( οταν ελθη ). Indefinite temporal clause for the future, with  οταν and the second aorist active subjunctive of  ερχομα, "whenever he comes."

He must continue a little while ( ολιγον αυτον δε μεινα ). Swete takes this to be Titus, who died September 13, 81, after a short reign.

Is himself also an eighth and is of the seven ( κα αυτος ογδοος κα εκ των επτα ). This is the angel's interpretation and it looks like a reference to Domitian as the eighth, who is regarded as one of the seven because he was considered a second Nero (Nero redivivus). For  εκ των επτα see Ac 21:8. John may have used  εκ των instead of  εις εκ των to avoid absolute identity between Domitian and Nero (Beckwith).

And he goeth unto perdition ( κα εις απωλειαν υπαγε ). As in verse 8. "Domitian was assassinated (September 18, 96), after a terrible struggle with his murderers. The tyrant's end was a symbol of the end to which the Beast which he personated was hastening" (Swete). Cf. 19:11-21.

Which have received no kingdom as yet ( οιτινες βασιλειαν ουπω ελαβον ). Second aorist (proleptic and prophetic) active indicative of  λαμβανω. The heads are emperors and the horns are kings (both called  βασιλεις ).

As kings ( ως βασιλεις ). Compared to kings (see  ως in 1:10; 4:6; 9:7; 13:3; 14:3; 16:21) without identification with the emperors, though succeeding them with "quasi-imperial powers" with the beast.

For one hour ( μιαν ωραν ). Accusative of extent of time, and that a brief time (18:10,16,19) in comparison with the beast (13:2).

Have one mind ( μιαν γνωμην εχουσιν ). "One purpose" ( γνωμη from  γινωσκω ) as in Ac 20:3; 1Co 1:10. The new powers are allies of the beast.

They give their power and authority unto the beast ( την δυναμιν κα την εξουσιαν αυτων τω θηριω διδοασιν ). Present active indicative of  διδωμ. Just as the dragon gave both power and authority to the beast (13:2), so they are wholly at the service of the beast.

These ( ουτο ). These ten kings.

Shall war against the Lamb ( μετα του θηριου πολεμησουσιν ). Future active of  πολεμεο, to war. As allies of the beast (the servant of the dragon, 12:7) they will wage war with the Lamb (the enemy of the dragon). These kings gather for battle as in 16:13f.

And the Lamb shall overcome them ( κα το αρνιον νικησε αυτους ). Future active of  νικαω. This is the glorious outcome, victory by the Lamb over the coalition of kings as against the beast before.

For he is Lord of lords and King of kings ( οτ Κυριος κυριων εστιν κα Βασιλευς βασιλεων ). The same words are again descriptive of Christ in 19:16, as of God in De 10:17 (God of gods and Lord of lords) and Da 10:17 (God of gods and Lord of kings). Cf. also 1Ti 6:15; Re 1:5. Crowned heads are Christ's subjects.

And they also shall overcome that are with him ( κα ο μετ' αυτου ). "And those with him shall also overcome" (supply  νικησουσιν, not  εισιν ). They will share in the triumph of the Lamb, as they shared in the conflict. Cf.  μετα του θηριου in verse 12.

Called and chosen and faithful ( κλητο κα εκλεκτο κα πιστο ). These are the three notes of those who share in the victory. For  κλητος and  εκλεκτος see Mt 22:14 (contrasted); Ro 8:28ff.; 2Pe 1:10; Re 2:10,13. The elect are called and prove faithful.

Where the harlot sitteth ( ου η πορνος καθητα ). Relative adverb  ου (where) referring to the waters ( υδατα ) of verse 1 on which the harlot sits. Present middle indicative of  καθημα.

Are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues ( λαο κα οχλο εισιν κα εθνη κα γλωσσα ). The O.T. uses "waters" as symbol for "peoples" (Isa 8:7; Jer 47:2; Ps 29:10, etc.). "Rome's greatest danger lay in the multitudes which were under her sway" (Swete).

These shall hate the harlot ( ουτο μισησουσιν την πορνην ). Future active of  μισεω.  Hουτο is resumptive demonstrative pronoun (masculine) referring to the ten horns and the beast (neuter); construction according to sense. The downfall of Rome will come from the sudden change in subject peoples.

Shall make her desolate and naked ( ηρημωμενην ποιησουσιν αυτην κα γυμνην ). Future active of  ποιεω and perfect passive predicate accusative participle of  ερημοω, old verb (from  ερημος desolate), again in 18:16,19.  Γυμνην (naked) is predicate adjective.

Shall eat her flesh ( τας σαρκας αυτης φαγοντα ). Future middle of the defective verb  εσθιω, to eat. Note plural  σαρκας, portions of flesh (Jas 5:3) as in Ps 27:2; Mic 3:3.

Shall burn her utterly with fire ( αυτην κατακαυσουσιν εν πυρ ). Future active of  κατακαιω, to burn down (perfective use of  καιω ). John wrote before the days of Alaric, Genseric, Ricimer, Totila, with their hordes which devastated Rome and the west in the fifth and sixth centuries. "No reader of the Decline and Fall can be at a loss for materials which will at once illustrate and justify the general trend of St. John's prophecy" (Swete).

Did put ( εδωκεν ). "Did give" (first aorist active of  διδωμ.

To do his mind ( ποιησα την γνωμην αυτου ). Epexegetic first aorist active infinitive of  ποιεω after  εδωκεν, as often in this book. They are of one mind (verse 13) because God put them up to it, clear statement of God's over-ruling hand among the nations.

Until the words of God should be accomplished ( αχρ τελεσθησοντα ο λογο του θεου ). Temporal clause about the future with  αχρ (like  εως ), with the future indicative of  τελεω, but with aorist passive subjunctive  τελεσθωσιν in 15:8. For  τελεω see also 10:7. For "the words of God" see 19:9. They will be fulfilled.

The woman ( η γυνη ). She is now explained after the beast has been interpreted. Verse 9 made it plain enough, but this verse demonstrates that the woman is the city of Rome "which reigneth ( η εχουσα βασιλειαν, the one having a kingdom) over the kings of the earth ( επ των βασιλεων της γης )." Rome followed Babylon, and other cities may follow in their train.

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