Revelation of John 5

In the right hand ( επ την δεξιαν ). "Upon the right hand" ( επ, not  εν ), the open palm. Anthropomorphic language drawn from Eze 2:9f.

A book ( βιβλιον ). Diminutive of  βιβλος, but no longer so used,  βιβλαριδιον occurring instead (10:2).

Written ( γεγραμμενον ). Perfect passive predicate participle of  γραφω.

Within and on the back ( εσωθεν κα οπισθεν ). "Within and behind." Description of a roll like that in Lu 4:17, not a codex as some scholars think. Usually these papyrus rolls were written only on the inside, but this one was so full of matter that it was written also on the back side ( οπισθεν ), and so was an  οπισθογραφον like that in Eze 2:10. There are many allegorical interpretations of this fact which are all beside the point.

Sealed ( κατεσφραγισμενον ). Perfect passive predicate participle of  κατασφραγιζω, old compound (perfective use of  κατα ), to seal up (down), here only in N.T.

With seven seals ( σφραγισιν επτα ). Instrumental case of  σφραγις, old word used in various senses, proof or authentication (1Co 9:2; Ro 4:11), signet-ring (Re 7:2), impression made by the seal (Re 9:4; 2Ti 2:19), the seal on books closing the book (Re 5:1,2,5,9; 6:1,3,5,7,9,12; 8:1). "A will in Roman law bore the seven seals of the seven witnesses" (Charles). But this sealed book of doom calls for no witnesses beyond God's own will. Alford sees in the number seven merely the completeness of God's purposes.

A strong angel ( αγγελον ισχυρον ). One needed (10:1; 18:21) "whose call could reach to the farthest limits of the universe" (Beckwith) and so "with a great voice" ( εν φωνη μεγαλη, in a great voice, as in 14:7,9,15, and without  εν 5:12; 6:10; 7:2,10; 8:13; 10:3, etc.). See  εν ισχυρα φωνη (18:2).

Proclaiming ( κηρυσσοντα ). Present active predicate participle of  κηρυσσω, to herald, to preach.

Worthy to open and to loose ( αξιος ανοιξα κα λυσα ). Worthy by rank and character (cf. Joh 1:27) as well as by ability ( εδυνατο, verse 3), followed by two infinitives (first aorist active) of  ανοιγω and  λυω, though  ινα and the subjunctive can be used after  αξιος as in Joh 1:27. Here  αξιος is like  ικανος (capable, qualified) as in Mt 8:8. The articles here ( το, τας ) refer to the book and the seals in verse 1. It is a husteron-proteron, since the loosing of the seals precedes the opening of the book.

 Εν (in) with locative ( ουρανω ),  επ (upon) with genitive ( γης ),  υποκατω (under) with ablative ( γης ), as in verse 13, including the whole universe, as in Ex 20:4 (Php 2:10). The MSS. vary in the negative conjunctions after  ουδεις (no one) between  ουδε--ουδε (continuative, and not--nor) and  ουτε--ουτε (disjunctive, neither--nor).

To look thereon ( βλεπειν αυτο ). Into the contents of the book. The universe declines the challenge.

I wept much ( εγω εκλαιον πολυ ). Imperfect active of  κλαιω, picturesque, descriptive, I kept on weeping much; natural tense in these vivid visions (1:12; 2:14; 5:4,14; 6:8,9; 10:10; 19:14; 21:15). Perhaps weeping aloud.

Was found ( ευρεθη ). First aorist passive indicative of  ευρισκω.

Worthy ( αξιος ). Predicative nominative after  ευρεθη.

One of the elders ( εις εκ των πρεσβυτερων ). "One from among the elders" of 4:4,10 ( εκ with the ablative 8 times in the Apocalypse, 12 in the Fourth Gospel, 10 in rest of the N.T., in place of the mere partitive genitive). No particular reason for one elder as the agent over another (7:13).

Saith ( λεγε ). Dramatic vivid present.

Weep not ( μη κλαιε ). "Cease weeping" (prohibition with  μη and the present active imperative of  κλαιω.

The Lion ( ο λεων ). Satan is called a lion by Peter (1Pe 5:8), but the metaphor belongs to Jesus also. Judah is called a lion in the blessing of Jacob (Ge 49:9) and Jesus as the greatest of the tribe of Judah, "the Root of David" ( η ριζα Δαυειδ, Isa 11:1,10) or the Branch from this root (the Messiah).

Hath overcome ( ενικησεν ). First aorist active indicative of  νικαω, "did overcome," coming first in the sentence as "the great historical fact of the victory of the Christ" (Swete).

And I saw ( κα ειδον ). Stirred by the words of the elder in verse 5 ( ιδου, behold). "I beheld."

In the midst ( εν μεσω ). See 4:6 for this idiom. It is not quite clear where the Lamb was standing in the vision, whether close to the throne or in the space between the throne and the elders (perhaps implied by "came" in verse 7, but nearness to the throne is implied by 14:1; Ac 7:56; Heb 10:11).

A Lamb ( αρνιον ). Elsewhere in the N.T.  ο αμνος is used of Christ (Joh 1:29,36; Acts 8:32; 1Pe 1:19 like Isa 53:7), but in the Apocalypse  το αρνιον occurs for the Crucified Christ 29 times in twelve chapters.

Standing ( εστηκος ). Second perfect active (intransitive of  ιστημ ) neuter accusative singular (grammatical gender like  αρνιον ), though some MSS. read  εστηκως (natural gender masculine and nominative in spite of  ειδον construction according to sense).

As though it had been slain ( ως εσφαγμενον ). Perfect passive predicate participle of  σφαζω, old word, in N.T. only in Re 5:6,9,12; 6:4,9; 13:3; 18:24; 1Jo 3:12.  Hως (as if) is used because the Lamb is now alive, but (in appearance) with the marks of the sacrifice. The Christ as the Lamb is both sacrifice and Priest (Heb 9:12f.; 10:11).

Having ( εχων ). Construction according to sense again with masculine nominative participle instead of  εχοντα (masculine accusative singular) or  εχον (neuter accusative singular). Seven horns ( κερας ) is a common symbol in the O.T. for strength and kingly power (1Sa 2:10; 1Ki 22:11; Ps 112:9; Da 7:7,20ff.) and often in Rev. (Re 12:3; 13:1; 17:3,12). Fulness of power (the All-powerful one) is symbolized by seven.

Seven eyes ( οφθαλμους επτα ). Like Zec 3:9; 4:10 and denotes here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the seven Spirits of Christ, while in 1:4 the seven Spirits are clearly the Holy Spirit of God (3:1), and blaze like torches (4:5), like the eyes of Christ (1:14). The Holy Spirit is both Spirit of God and of Christ (Ro 8:9).

Sent forth ( απεσταλμενο ). Perfect passive predicate participle of  αποστελλω, masculine plural (agreeing with  ο and  οφθαλμους in gender), but some MSS. have  απεσταλμενα agreeing with the nearer  πνευματα.

He taketh ( ειληφεν ). Perfect active indicative of  λαμβανω, not used for the aorist (cf.  ηλθεν, he came), but vivid dramatic picture of the actual scene, "he has taken it."

He had taken ( ελαβεν ). Here John drops back to the narrative tense (the second aorist active indicative of  λαμβανω ), not the past perfect as the English rendering might indicate, merely "when he took." For like vivid variation (not confusion) of tenses with  ειληφεν see 3:3; 8:5; 11:17 and with  ειρηκα in 7:13f.; 19:3.

Fell down ( επεσαν ). Second aorist active indicative of  πιπτω with first aorist ( -αν ) ending, just "fell."

Having ( εχοντες ). "Holding."

A harp ( κιθαραν ). Old word, the traditional instrument (lyre or zithern) for psalmody (Ps 33:2; 98:5, etc.).

Golden bowls ( φιαλας χρυσας ). Broad shallow saucers, old word, in N.T. only in Re 5:8; 15:7; 16:1-4,8,10,12,17; 17:1; 21:9.

Of incense ( θυμιαματων ). Old word from  θυμιαω, to burn incense (Lu 1:9), as in Lu 1:10.

Which are ( α εισιν ). "Which (these bowls of incense) symbolize the prayers of the saints as in Ps 140:2; Lu 1:10.

They sing ( αιδουσιν ). Present active indicative of  αιδω. Old verb, to chant with lyrical emotion (Col 3:16).

A new song ( ωιδην καινην ). Cognate accusative for  οιδε ( ωιδη, song) is  αοιδε from  αειδω, that is  αιδω (the verb used), old word already used (Col 3:16; Eph 5:19), called  καινην because a fresh song for new mercies (Isa 42:10; Ps 33:3; 40:3, etc.), here in praise of redemption to Christ (14:3) like the new name (2:17; 3:12), the new Jerusalem (3:12; 21:2), the new heaven and the new earth (21:1), not the old song of creation (4:8,11) to God.

For thou wast slain ( οτ εσφαγης ). Second aorist passive indicative of  σφαζω.  Αγοραζω used by Paul and Peter of our purchase from sin by Christ (1Co 6:20; 7:23; Ga 3:13; 4:5; 2Pe 2:1; cf. 1Pe 1:18f.).

Unto God ( τω θεω ). Dative case of advantage as also in verse 10.

With thy blood ( εν τω αιματ σου ). Instrumental use of  εν as in 1:5. The blood of Christ as the price of our redemption runs all through the Apocalypse. This is the reason why Christ is worthy to "take the book and open its seals." That is, he is worthy to receive adoration and worship (4:11) as the Father does.

Men of every ( εκ πασης ). No  ανθρωπους (men) or  τινας (some) before  εκ in the Greek. See a like ellipsis in 11:9 with a like grouping of words for all mankind, representatives of all races and nations (7:9; 13:7; 14:6).

Madest ( εποιησας ). First aorist active indicative of  ποιεω, a prophetic use anticipating the final result.

A kingdom and priests ( βασιλειαν κα ιερεις ). As the correct text in 1:6.

They reign ( βασιλευουσιν ). Present active indicative, futuristic use, though Aleph P have the future  βασιλευσουσιν (shall reign) as in 20:6.

And I saw ( κα ειδον ). A new feature introduced by the outer and vaster circle ( κυκλω ) of angels who catch up the new song of redemption in antiphonal singing, answering the song of the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders. Some MSS. read  ως (as if) before  φωνην (voice). Ten thousand times ten thousand ( μυριαδες μυριαδων κα χιλιαδες χιλιαδων ). Literally, "myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands," a mild husteron-proteron. The regular order in I Enoch 40:I. See Da 7:10 for  χιλια χιλιαδες (thousand thousands) and  μυρια μυριαδες (countless myriads). They are all efforts to express the innumerable hosts of the angels.

Worthy ( αξιον ). Agreeing in gender (grammatical neuter) with  αρνιον, but some MSS. have  αξιος (masculine, natural gender). Note change to third person  εστιν instead of second  ε. The point of the song is the same as that in verses 9,10, but the language differs. Note the repeated article  το (the lamb the slain) referring to verses 6,9. Note also the one article  την before  δυναμιν for all the seven grounds of praise ( δυναμιν, power,  πλουτον, wealth,  σοφιαν, wisdom,  ισχυν, strength,  τιμην, honor,  δοξαν, glory,  ευλογιαν, blessing), though  πλουτον is masculine, in contrast with separate article for each item (all three feminine) in 4:11, here grouping them all together, "a heptad of praise" (Swete).

Every created thing ( παν κτισμα ). Every creature in a still wider antiphonal circle beyond the circle of angels (from  κτιζω, for which see 1Ti 4:4; Jas 1:18), from all the four great fields of life (in heaven, upon the earth, under the earth as in verse 3, with on the sea  επ της θαλασσης added). No created thing is left out. This universal chorus of praise to Christ from all created life reminds one of the profound mystical passage in Ro 8:20-22 concerning the sympathetic agony of creation ( κτισις ) in hope of freedom from the bondage of corruption. If the trail of the serpent is on all creation, it will be ultimately thrown off.

Saying ( λεγοντας ). Masculine (construction according to sense, personifying the created things) if genuine, though some MSS. have  λεγοντα (grammatical gender agreeing with  παντα ) present active participle of  λεγω, to say.

And to the Lamb ( κα τω αρνιω ). Dative case. Praise and worship are rendered to the Lamb precisely as to God on the throne. Note separate articles here in the doxology as in 4:11 and the addition of  το κρατος (active power) in place of  ισχυς (reserve of strength) in 5:12.

Amen ( Αμην ). The four living creatures give their approval to the doxology after the antiphonal songs.

Fell down and worshipped ( επεσαν κα προσεκυνησαν ). In silent adoration that closes the whole service of praise to the One upon the throne and to the Lamb. As in 4:10 so here the representatives of the redeemed bow in silent worship. Pliny says that the Christians sing a song to Christ as to God. He is here worshipped by the universe (Php 2:10f.).

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