Romans 13

Every soul ( πασα ψυχη ). As in 2:9; Ac 2:43. A Hebraism for  πας ανθρωπος (every man).

To the higher powers ( εξουσιαις υπερεχουσαις ). Abstract for concrete. See Mr 2:10 for  εξουσια.  Hυπερεχω is an old verb to have or hold over, to be above or supreme, as in 1Pe 2:13.

Except by God ( ε μη υπο θεου ). So the best MSS. rather than  απο θεου (from God). God is the author of order, not anarchy.

The powers that be ( α ουσα ). "The existing authorities" (supply  εξουσια ). Art ordained ( τεταγμενα εισιν ). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of  τασσω, "stand ordained by God." Paul is not arguing for the divine right of kings or for any special form of government, but for government and order. Nor does he oppose here revolution for a change of government, but he does oppose all lawlessness and disorder.

He that resisteth ( ο αντιτασσομενος ). Present middle articular participle of  αντιτασσω, old verb to range in battle against as in Ac 18:6, "he that lines himself up against."

Withstandeth ( ανθεστηκεν ). Perfect active indicative of  ανθιστημ and intransitive, "has taken his stand against."

The ordinance of God ( τη του θεου διαταγη ). Late word, but common in papyri (Deissmann, Light, etc., p. 89), in N.T. only here and Ac 7:53. Note repetition of root of  τασσω.

To themselves ( εαυτοις ). Dative of disadvantage. See Mr 12:40 for "shall receive a judgment" ( κρινα λημψοντα ). Future middle of  λαμβανω.

A terror ( φοβος ). This meaning in Isa 8:13. Paul does not approve all that rulers do, but he is speaking generally of the ideal before rulers. Nero was Emperor at this time.

From the same ( εξ αυτης ). "From it" ( εξουσια, personified in verse 4).

A minister of God ( θεου διακονος ). General sense of  διακονος. Of course even Nero was God's minister "to thee ( σο ethical dative) for good ( εις το αγαθον, for the good)." That is the ideal, the goal.

Beareth ( φορε ). Present active indicative of  φορεω, old frequentative form of  φερω, to bear, to wear.

But if thou do ( εαν δε ποιηις ). Condition of third class,  εαν and present active subjunctive of  ποιεω, "if thou continue to do."

Sword ( μαχαιραν ). Symbol of authority as to-day policemen carry clubs or pistols. "The Emperor Trajan presented to a provincial governor on starting for his province, a dagger, with the words, 'For me. If I deserve it, in me'" (Vincent).

An avenger ( εκδικος ). Old adjective from  εκ and  δικη (right), "outside of penalty," unjust, then in later Greek "exacting penalty from one," in N.T. only here and 1Th 4:6.

Ye must needs ( αναγκη ). "There is necessity," both because of the law and because of conscience, because it is right (2:15; 9:1).

Ye pay ( τελειτε ). Present active indicative (not imperative) of  τελεω, to fulfil.

Tribute ( φορους ). Old word from  φερω, to bring, especially the annual tax on lands, etc. (Lu 20:22; 23:1). Paying taxes recognizes authority over us.

Ministers of God's service ( λειτουργο θεου ). Late word for public servant (unused  λειτος from Attic  λεως, people, and  εργω, to work). Often used of military servants, servants of the king, and temple servants (Heb 8:2). Paul uses it also of himself as Christ's  λειτουργος (Ro 15:16) and of Epaphroditus as a minister to him (Php 2:25). See  θεου διακονος in verse 4.

Attending continually ( προσκαρτερουντες ). Present active participle of the late verb  προσκαρτερεω ( προς and  καρτερεω from  καρτος or  κρατος, strength) to persevere. See on Ac 2:42; 8:13.

Dues ( οφειλας ). Debts, from  οφειλω, to owe. Often so in the papyri, though not in Greek authors. In N.T. only here, Mt 18:32; 1Co 7:3. Paying debts needs emphasis today, even for ministers.

To whom tribute is due ( τω τον φορον ). We must supply a participle with the article  τω like  απαιτουντ ("to the one asking tribute"). So with the other words (to whom custom,  τω το τελος απαιτουντ; to whom fear,  τω τον φοβον απαιτουντ; to whom honour,  τω την τιμην απαιτουντ ).  Φορος is the tribute paid to a subject nation (Lu 20:22), while  τελος is tax for support of civil government (Mt 17:25).

Save to love one another ( ε μη το αλληλους αγαπαιν ). "Except the loving one another." This articular infinitive is in the accusative case the object of  οφειλετε and partitive apposition with  μηδεν (nothing). This debt can never be paid off, but we should keep the interest paid up.

His neighbour ( τον ετερον ). "The other man," "the second man." "Just as in the relations of man and God  πιστις has been substituted for  νομος, so between man and man  αγαπη takes the place of definite legal relations" (Sanday and Headlam). See Mt 22:37-40 for the words of Jesus on this subject. Love is the only solution of our social relations and national problems.

For this ( το γαρ ). For the article ( το ) pointing to a sentence see 8:26, here to the quotation. The order of the commandments here is like that in Lu 18:20; Jas 2:11 and in B for De 5, but different from that of the Hebrew in Ex 20; De 5. The use of  ου with the volitive future in prohibitions in place of  μη and the imperative or subjunctive is a regular Greek idiom.

And if there be any other ( κα ε τις ετερα ). Paul does not attempt to give them all.

It is summed up ( ανακεφαλαιουτα ). Present passive indicative of  ανακεφαλαιοω, late literary word or "rhetorical term" ( ανα, κεφαλαιον, head or chief as in Heb 8:1). Not in the papyri, but  κεφαλαιον, quite common for sum or summary. In N.T. only here and Eph 1:10.

Namely ( εν τω ). See  το γαρ at the beginning of the verse, though omitted by B F. The quotation is from Le 19:18. Quoted in Mt 5:43; 22:39; Mr 12:31; Lu 10:27; Ga 5:14; Jas 2:8 it is called  βασιλικος νομος (royal law).

Thy neighbour ( τον πλησιον σου ).  Πλησιον is an adverb and with the article it means "the one near thee." See on Mt 5:43.

The fulfilment of the law ( πληρωμα νομου ). "The filling up or complement of the law" like  πεπληρωκεν (perfect active indicative of  πληροω, stands filled up) in verse 8. See 1Co 13 for the fuller exposition of this verse.

And this ( κα τουτο ). Either nominative absolute or accusative of general reference, a common idiom for "and that too" (1Co 6:6,8, etc.).

Knowing ( ειδοτες ). Second perfect active participle, nominative plural without a principal verb. Either we must supply a verb like  ποιησωμεν (let us do it) or  ποιησατε (do ye do it) or treat it as an independent participle as in 12:10f.

The season ( τον καιρον ). The critical period, not  χρονος (time in general).

High time ( ωρα ). Like our the "hour" has come, etc. MSS. vary between  ημας (us) and  υμας (you), accusative of general reference with  εγερθηνα (first aorist passive infinitive of  εγειρω, to awake, to wake up), "to be waked up out of sleep" ( εξ υπνου ).

Nearer to us ( εγγυτερον ημων ). Probably so, though  ημων can be taken equally well with  η σωτηρια (our salvation is nearer). Final salvation, Paul means, whether it comes by the second coming of Christ as they all hoped or by death. It is true of us all.

Is far spent ( προεκοψεν ). First aorist active indicative of  προκοπτω, to cut forward, to advance, old word for making progress. See Lu 2:52; Ga 1:14; 2Ti 2:16; 3:9.

Is at hand ( ηγγικεν ). Perfect active indicative, "has drawn nigh." Vivid picture for day-break.

Let us therefore cast off ( αποθωμεθα ουν ). Aorist middle subjunctive (volitive) of  αποτιθημ, to put off from oneself "the works of darkness" ( τα εργα του σκοτους ) as we do our night-clothes.

Let us put on ( ενδυσωμεθα ). Aorist middle subjunctive (volitive) of  ενδυω, to put on. For this same contrast between putting off ( αποτιθημ and  απεκδυω ) and putting on ( ενδυω ) see Col 3:8-12.

The armour of light ( τα οπλα του φοτος ). The weapons of light, that belong to the light (to the day time). For the metaphor of the Christian armour see 1Th 5:8; 2Co 6:7; Ro 6:13; Eph 6:13ff.

Honestly ( ευσχημονως ). Paul is fond of the metaphor "walk" ( περιπατεω ), 33 times though not in the Pastoral Epistles. This old adverb (from  ευσχημων, graceful) occurs also in 1Th 4:12; 1Co 14:40. The English word "honest" means honourable (Latin honor) and so decent. Wycliff translates 1Co 12:32 by "unhonest," "honesty," "honest" for "less honourable, honour, honourable."

Not in revelling ( μη κωμοις ). Plural "revellings." See on Ga 5:21.

Drunkenness ( μεθαις ). Plural again, "drunkennesses." See on Ga 5:21.

In chambering ( κοιταις ). Plural also. See on Ro 9:10.

Wantonness ( ασελγειαις ). Plural likewise. See on 2Co 12:21; Ga 5:19.

Not in strife and jealousy ( μη εριδ κα ζηλω ). Singular here, but some MSS. have the plural like the previous words. Quarrelling and jealousy go with the other vices (Shedd).

But ye on ( ενδυσασθε ). The same metaphor as in verse 12. The Lord Jesus Christ is the garment that we all need. See Ga 3:27 with baptism as the symbol.

Provision ( προνοιαν ). Old word for forethought (from  προνοος ). In N.T. only here and Ac 24:2.

For the flesh ( της σαρκος ). Objective genitive.

To fulfil the lusts thereof ( εις επιθυμιας ). "For lusts." No verb.

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