Daniel 8

vision

The eighth chapter gives details concerning the second and third world-kingdoms: the silver and brass kingdoms of Dan. 2.; the bear and leopard kingdoms of Dan. 7., viz., the Medo-Persian and Macedonian kingdoms of history. At the time of this vision (Daniel 8:1) the first monarchy was nearing its end. Belshazzar was the last king of that monarchy.

third year About B.C. 530.

ram

(See Scofield "Daniel 8:20") .

little horn

The "little horn" here is a prophecy fulfilled in Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 175, who profaned the temple and terribly persecuted the Jews. He is not to be confounded with the "little horn" of Dan. 7. who is yet to come, and who will dominate the earth during the great tribulation. (See Scofield "Daniel 7:8") concerning "The Beast". See Scofield "Revelation 19:20" and "The great tribulation," Psalms 2:5. See Scofield "Revelation 7:14". But Antiochus is a remarkable type of the Beast, the terrible "little horn" of the last days. Verses 24,25 go beyond Antiochus and evidently refer to the "little horn" of Dan. 7. Both Antiochus and the Beast, but the Beast pre-eminently, are in view in verses 24,25. That the "little horn" of Dan. 7. cannot be the little horn of Daniel 8:9-13,23 is evident. The former comes up among the ten horns into which the fourth empire (Roman) is to be divided; the little horn of Dan. 8. comes out of one of the four kingdoms into which the third (Grecian) empire was divided (Daniel 8:23), and in "the latter time" of the four kingdoms Daniel 8:22,23). This was historically true of Antiochus Epiphanes. They are alike in hatred of the Jews and of God, and in profaning the temple. Cf. Daniel 7:25 (the Beast) with Daniel 8:10-12 (Antiochus):

one of them Anticohus Epiphanes came out of Syria, one of the "four notable" kingdoms into which Alexander's empire was divided.

And it waxed great

This passage (Daniel 8:10-14) is confessedly the most difficult in prophecy, a difficulty increased by the present state of the text. Historically this was fulfilled in and by Antiochus Epiphanes, but in a more intense and final sense Antiochus but adumbrates the awful blasphemy of the "little horn" of ; Daniel 7:8,24,25; 9:27; 11:36-45; 12:11. In Daniel Daniel 8:10-14 the actions of both "little horns" blend.

daily sacrifice

Cf. Daniel 9:27 where the Beast comes into view:

desolation

Seven times in Daniel the "desolation" is spoken of:

(1) Of the sanctuary, Daniel 8:13 fulfilled by Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 175-170.

(2) Of the sanctuary, Daniel 9:17 the condition in Daniel's time, when the Jews were in exile and the sanctuary desolate.

(3) Generally, of the land, Daniel 9:18 also referring to Daniel's time.

(4) Of the sanctuary, Daniel 9:26 fulfilled A.D. 70, in the destruction of city and temple after the cutting off of Messiah. Luke 21:20.

(5,6,7) Of the sanctuary, by the Beast, Daniel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11 Cf ; Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14; 2 Thessalonians 2:3,8-12; Revelation 13:14,15.

one saint Or, holy one, idem. Daniel 4:13,17.

a man

The theophanies. 10:6,10,18; Ezekiel 40:3; Genesis 12:7; Revelation 1:9.

end

Two "ends" are in view here:

(1) historically, the end of the third, or Grecian empire of Alexander out of one of the divisions of which the little horn of verse 9 (Antiochus) arose;

(2) prophetically, the end of the times of the Gentiles Luke 21:24; Revelation 16:14 when the "little horn" of Daniel 7:8,24-26 the Beast, will arise--Daniel's final time of the end. (See Scofield "Daniel 12:4") .

ram

vs. Daniel 8:3,4.

The "higher" horn which "came up last" is Cyrus, the other "Darius the Mede."

first king

i.e. Alexander the Great.

four kingdoms

The four empires into which Alexander's empire was divided about B.C. 300; Greece, Asia Minor, including Syria, Egypt, the East.

king of fierce countenance

i.e. Antiochus Epiphanes who arose out of Syria, one of the "four kingdoms," B.C. 170.

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