Luke 4#Lu 4:1| XIX. JESUS TEMPTED IN THE WILDERNESS. #Mt 4:1-11 Mr 1:12,13 Lu 4:1-13| And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan. See TFG "#Mr 1:12|". And was led in the Spirit in the wilderness. That is, under the power of the Spirit. (TFG 90) #Lu 4:2| During forty days. Matthew (#Mt 4:2|) speaks of the temptation as coming "after" forty days. Evidently Mark (#Mr 1:13|) and Luke regard the long fast as part of the process of temptation, seeing that without it the first temptation would have been without force. There is no evidence of any other specific temptations before the three. See TFG "#Mt 4:2|". Being tempted of the devil. See TFG "#Mr 1:13|". And he did eat nothing in those days. It used to be thought that a forty days' absolute fast was a practical impossibility, and Luke's words were therefore modified to mean that he ate very little. But as a forty days' fast has been safely accomplished in modern times, and as it was Jesus who fasted, we see no reason why we should not take Luke's statement literally, as indicating an absolute fast. And when they were completed, he hungered. See TFG "#Mt 4:2|". (TFG 90) #Lu 4:3| And the devil said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, command this stone that it become bread. The devil's "if" strikes at the faith of Christ, and faith is the bond of union and accord between man and God. The main sin of this temptation was therefore distrust, though it had other sinful phases. The Father's voice had just declared the Sonship of Jesus, and Satan here boldly questions the truth of God's words, just as he did in the beginning (#Ge 3:3-5|). The temptation smacks of curiosity, and curiosity is the mother of many sins. Though Satan so glibly questioned the divinity of Christ, his kingdom soon began to feel the power of that divinity (#Lu 4:34-41|), and shall continue to feel it until his kingdom is destroyed (#Heb 2:14 1Jo 3:8|). This temptation appealed to the present appetite, the impulse of the moment, as many of our temptations do. It has been quaintly said of the tempter that "he had sped so successfully to his own mind by a temptation about a matter of eating with the first Adam, that he practiced the old manner of trading with the second." This first temptation is still Satan's favorite with the poor. He suggests to them that if they were really the beloved objects of God's care, their condition would be otherwise. We should note that Jesus wrought no selfish miracle. Such an act would have been contrary to all Scripture precedent. Paul did not heal himself (#1Co 12:7-9 Ga 4:13 Col 4:14|), nor Epaphroditus, (#Php 2:25-27|), nor Trophimus (#2Ti 4:20|). Denying himself the right to make bread in the wilderness, Christ freely used his miraculous power to feed others in the desert (#Mt 14:15-21|), and merited as just praise those words which were meant as a bitter taunt (#Mt 27:42|). (TFG 91-92) #Lu 4:4| And Jesus answered him, etc. See TFG "#Mt 4:4|". #Lu 4:5| And he led him up, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world. See TFG "#Mt 4:8|". In a moment of time. These words strongly indicate that the prospect must have been supernaturally presented. The suddenness of the vision added greatly to the power of the temptation. (TFG 97) #Lu 4:6| To thee will I give all this authority and the glory of them. See TFG "#Mt 4:9|". For it hath been delivered unto me. Satan does not claim an absolute but a derivative right, and his claim is not wholly unfounded (#Joh 12:31 14:30 16:11|). But the kingdom has been delivered unto him by men rather than by God (#Eph 2:2|). How much more quickly Jesus would have obtained power, had he received it from men by consenting to co-operate with them in their sinful practices as does Satan. And to whomsoever I will. Not so Jesus. His giving is according to the Father's will (#Mt 9:23|). I give it. The Emperor Tiberius then held it in the fullest sense ambition ever realized. Yet he was the most miserable and degraded of men. Satan knows how to take full toll for all that he gives. (TFG 98) #Lu 4:7| If thou therefore wilt worship before me, it shall all be thine. See TFG "#Mt 4:9|". #Lu 4:8| It is written, etc. See TFG "#Mt 4:10|". #Lu 4:9| And he led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple. See TFG "#Mt 4:5|". And said unto him, If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence. See TFG "#Mt 4:6|". (TFG 94) #Lu 4:10| For it is written, etc. See TFG "#Mt 4:6|". #Lu 4:11| And on their hands they shall bear thee up. See TFG "#Mt 4:6|". #Lu 4:12| And Jesus answering said unto him. See TFG "#Mt 4:7|". #Lu 4:13| He departed from him for a season. See TFG "#Mt 4:11|". #Lu 4:14| XXVI. JESUS SETS OUT FROM JUDAEA FOR GALILEE. C. ARRIVAL IN GALILEE. #Lu 4:14 Joh 4:43-45| And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee. "Power of the Spirit" here means its manifest use to perform miracles, rather than its presence, influence or direction. Jesus was always under the influence and direction of the Spirit, but did not previously perform miracles. (TFG 154) XXVII. GENERAL ACCOUNT OF JESUS' TEACHING. #Mt 4:17 Mr 1:14,15 Lu 4:14,15| And a fame went out concerning him through all the region round about. The miracles of Jesus and the manner in which he taught caused the people to glorify his name. (TFG 157) #Lu 4:15| And he taught in their synagogues. If we may trust later tradition (and the New Testament corroborates it), synagogues were very plentiful in that day, there being at least one in each town. In the synagogue the people met on Sabbath and feast days. The temple at Jerusalem was used for ceremonial worship, but the services in the synagogue were of far different order, the study and application of the Scripture being the principal feature. (Also see TFG "Mr 1:39" on the synagogue.) (TFG 157) #Lu 4:16| LX. JESUS VISITS NAZARETH AND IS REJECTED. #Mt 13:54-58 Mr 6:1-6 Lu 4:16-31| And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. As to this city, see TFG "Lu 1:26", see TFG "Lu 2:39". As to the early years of Jesus at Nazareth, see TFG "Lu 2:51". And he entered, as his custom was, into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up to read. This does not mean that it had been the custom of Jesus when he was a young man in Nazareth to read in the synagogue. It means that after he entered his public ministry it was his custom to use the synagogue as his place of teaching on the sabbath day (#Mr 1:39 3:1,2|). For comment on this usage of the synagogue see TFG "Mr 1:39". (TFG 358) #Lu 4:17| And found the place where it was written. #Isa 61:1,2|; but the quotation embraces other lines from Isaiah. (TFG 358) #Lu 4:18| Because he anointed me to preach good tidings to the poor. Anointing was the method by which prophets, priests, and kings were consecrated or set apart to their several offices. This prophecy says that the Holy Spirit came upon Jesus because he was appointed to do a work of divine helpfulness. (TFG 358-359) #Lu 4:19| To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. The prophecy set forth in physical terms what Jesus should perform in both the physical and spiritual realms. The prophecy closes with a reference to the jubilee year, which, being a time of liberation, forgiveness, and fresh starts (#Le 25:10|), was a type of Christ's ministry and kingdom. (TFG 359) #Lu 4:20| And he closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant. This officer corresponded to our sexton. Part of this duty was to take charge of the synagogue rolls. And sat down. Reader and congregation both stood during the reading; then, usually, both sat down to hear the passage explained. They stood out of reverence for God's word. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. They had heard of his miracles, and were curious to see what he would say and do. On the synagogue, see TFG "Mr 1:39". (TFG 359) #Lu 4:22| And all bare him witness, and wondered at the words of grace which proceeded out of his mouth. The word "grace" refers rather to the manner than to the matter. The speech of Jesus flowed easily, and gracefully. And they said, Is not this Joseph's son? See TFG "#Mr 6:3|". (TFG 359) #Lu 4:23| Doubtless ye will say unto me this parable, Physician, heal thyself: whatsoever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in thine own country. Jesus quoted a familiar proverb, the meaning of which is this: he was part of Nazareth, and hence the claims of Nazareth upon him were superior to those of Capernaum, and therefore Nazareth should have been blessed by his healing. But the expression was evidently used contemptuously, as if they said, "You can do big things at Capernaum, but you can not do them here. You can not deceive us; we know you." (TFG 360) #Lu 4:25| But of a truth I say unto you. Jesus now proceeds to make two close applications of the proverb. There were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months. See #1Ki 17:1 18:1,2 Jas 5:17|. When there came a great famine over all the land. (TFG 360-361) #Lu 4:26,27| And unto none of them was Elijah sent, etc. Naaman also was a Gentile. The first instance cited by Jesus will be found at #1Ki 17:8-16|, and the second at #2Ki 5:1-14|. Palestine was filled with poor people even in times of plenty, so there must have been large numbers of hungry people during the long-continued period of famine. Then, too, there has always been a large number of lepers in the land, and surely if any disease ought to prompt a man to lay aside his prejudices that he might obtain healing it was leprosy; but as Nazareth was now rejecting Jesus, so their ancestors had despised the two mighty prophets. Not one of all the hungry would have received bread from Elijah by an act of faith, nor did one of all the lepers ask healing from Elisha. Unto a woman that was a widow. A Gentile. (TFG 361) #Lu 4:28| And they were all filled with wrath. The Nazarenes were jealous enough of the claims of Jesus when put in their most modest dress; but when Jesus placed himself alongside Elijah and Elisha, and likened his hearers to widows for want, and lepers for uncleanness, they were ready to dash him to pieces. In the synagogue. See TFG "#Mr 1:39|". (TFG 361) #Lu 4:29| And they rose up, and cast him forth out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon their city was built. They evidently had hold of him. That they might throw him down headlong. Near the eastern end of Nazareth there is a cavern in the rock which forms a precipice down which, if a man were hurled, he would be killed. At the western end there is a perpendicular cliff about forty feet high, with a naked floor of rock at the bottom. To which place they led Jesus we can not decide. (TFG 361) #Lu 4:30| But he passing through the midst of them went his way. A simple statement of a marvelous fact. Miracles are not explained in the Bible. (TFG 362) #Lu 4:31| And he came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. We have followed the chronology of Mark, according to which Jesus had already been living in Capernaum for some time. Luke tells of the rejection early in his narrative, and adds this line to show that from the earlier days of his ministry Jesus made Capernaum his headquarters. XXXI. HEALING A DEMONIAC IN A SYNAGOGUE. (At Capernaum.) #Mr 1:21-28 Lu 4:31-37| And he came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. Luke has just spoken of Nazareth, and he uses the expression "down to Capernaum" because the latter was on the lake shore while Nazareth was up in the mountains. (TFG 166, 362) #Lu 4:32| And they were astonished at his teaching; for his word was with authority. See TFG "#Mr 1:22|". #Lu 4:33| And in the synagogue. See TFG "#Mr 1:39|". There was a man, that had a spirit of an unclean demon; and he cried out with a loud voice. See TFG "#Mr 1:23|". #Lu 4:34| What have we to do with thee? On this phrase, see TFG "Joh 2:4". Art thou come to destroy us? etc. See TFG "#Mr 1:24|". (TFG 168) #Lu 4:35| And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him. See TFG "#Mr 1:25|". And when the demon had thrown him down in the midst, he came out of him. See TFG "#Mr 1:26|". (TFG 168-169) #Lu 4:36| And amazement came upon all, etc. See TFG "#Mr 1:27|". The unclean spirits. See TFG "#Mr 1:23|". #Lu 4:37| And there went forth a rumor concerning him into every place of the region round about. See TFG "#Mr 1:28|". #Lu 4:38| XXXII. HEALING PETER'S MOTHER-IN-LAW AND MANY OTHERS. (At Capernaum.) #Mt 8:14-17 Mr 1:29-34 Lu 4:38-41| And he rose up from the synagogue. See TFG "#Mr 1:39|". And entered into the house of Simon. See TFG "#Mr 1:29|". And Simon's wife's mother was holden with a great fever. Luke speaks as a physician; for Galen, the father of medicine, divided fevers into little and great. And they besought him for her. Their interest in her shows the spirit of love and kindness which pervaded the home. (TFG 170) #Lu 4:39| And he stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her. Though it was an inanimate force, it was still subject to rebuke, as were the winds and waves of Galilee (#Mt 8:26|). And immediately she rose up and ministered unto them. See TFG "#Mr 1:31|". (TFG 170) #Lu 4:40| And when the sun was setting, etc. See TFG "#Mr 1:32|". #Lu 4:41| And rebuking them, he suffered them not to speak, because they knew that he was the Christ. See TFG "#Mr 1:34|". #Lu 4:42| XXXIII. JESUS MAKES A PREACHING TOUR THROUGH GALILEE. #Mt 4:23-25 Mr 1:35-39 Lu 4:42-44| And when it was day. Mark (#Mr 1:35|) has in mind the season when Jesus sought the Father in prayer, and so he tells us it was "a great while before day." Luke has in mind the hour when Jesus faced and spoke to the multitude, so he says, "When it was day." And the multitudes sought after him, etc. They would have selfishly kept his blessed ministries for their own exclusive enjoyment. (TFG 172, 173) #Lu 4:43| I must preach the good tidings of the kingdom of God to the other cities also. Jesus sought to arouse the entire nation. That which the disciples regarded as a large work in Capernaum was consequently in his sight a very small one. Those who understand that it is God's will and wish to save every man that lives upon the earth will not be overelated by a successful revival in some small corner of the great field of labor. (TFG 173) #Lu 4:44| In the synagogues of Galilee. See TFG "#Mr 1:39|".
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