Luke 6#Lu 6:1| XXXVIII. JESUS DEFENDS DISCIPLES WHO PLUCK GRAIN ON THE SABBATH. (Probably while on the way from Jerusalem to Galilee.) #Mt 12:1-8 Mr 2:23-28 Lu 6:1-5| Now it came to pass on a sabbath, etc. See TFG "#Mr 2:23|". #Lu 6:2| Why do ye that which it is not lawful to do on the sabbath day? See TFG "#Mr 2:24|". #Lu 6:3| And Jesus answering them said, etc. See TFG "#Mr 2:25|" #Lu 6:4| How he went into the house of God, etc. See TFG "#Mr 2:26|". #Lu 6:5| The Son of man is Lord of the sabbath. See TFG "#Mr 2:28|". #Lu 6:6| XXXIX. JESUS DEFENDS HEALING A WITHERED HAND ON THE SABBATH. (Probably Galilee.) #Mt 12:9-14 Mr 3:1-6 Lu 6:6-11| And it came to pass on another sabbath. Another sabbath than that on which the disciples plucked the grain (#Lu 6:1|). That he entered into the synagogue, etc. See TFG "#Mt 12:9|". On the synagogue, see TFG "Mr 1:39". And there was a man there, and his right hand was withered. See TFG "#Mt 12:10|". (TFG 214) #Lu 6:7| And the scribes and the Pharisees watched him, etc. See TFG "#Mr 3:2|". #Lu 6:8| But he knew their thoughts. Omnisciently. And he said to the man that had his hand withered, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. See TFG "#Mr 3:3|". (TFG 215) #Lu 6:9| Is it lawful on the sabbath to do good, or to do harm? to save a life, or to destroy it? See TFG "#Mr 3:4|". #Lu 6:10| And he looked round about on them all, and said unto him, Stretch forth thy hand. See TFG "#Mr 3:5|". #Lu 6:11| And communed one with another what they might do to Jesus. See TFG "#Mr 3:6|". #Lu 6:12| XLI. AFTER PRAYER JESUS SELECTS TWELVE APOSTLES. (Near Capernaum.) #Mt 10:2-4 Mr 3:13-19 Lu 6:12-16| And it came to pass in these days, that he went out into the mountain to pray; and he continued all night in prayer to God. It was a momentous occasion. He was about to choose those to whom he was to entrust the planting, organizing, and training of that church which was to be the purchase of his own blood. Jesus used such important crises, not as occasions for anxiety and worry, but as fitting times to seek and obtain the Father's grace and blessing. (TFG 220) #Lu 6:13| And when it was day, he called his disciples; and he chose from them twelve. See TFG "#Mr 3:14|". Whom also he named apostles. The word "apostle" means "one sent." Its meaning was kindred to the word "ambassador" (#2Co 5:20|), the messenger whom a king sent to foreign powers, and also to our modern word "missionary," which also means "one sent." Christ himself was an apostle (#Heb 3:1|), and so sent them (#Joh 20:21|). The word "apostle" is translated "messenger" at #2Co 8:23| and #Php 2:25|. The apostles were to be with Jesus, that they might be taught by his words, and that they might become teachers of that word and witnesses as to the life and actions of Jesus. A necessary condition, therefore, to their apostleship was this seeing of Jesus and the consequent ability to testify as to his actions, especially as to his resurrection (#Ac 1:8,21 22:14,15 1Co 9:1|). They could therefore have no successors. All the apostles were from Galilee save Judas Iscariot. #Lu 6:14| Simon, whom he also named Peter. See TFG "#Mr 3:16|". Andrew his brother. See TFG "#Mt 10:2|". James and John. See TFG "#Mr 3:17|". Philip. See TFG "#Joh 1:43|". Bartholomew. See TFG "#Mr 3:18|". #Lu 6:15| Matthew and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus. See TFG "#Mr 3:18|". Simon who was called the Zealot. See TFG "#Mr 3:18|" on Simon the Canaanite. #Lu 6:16| Judas the son of James. See TFG "#Mr 3:18|" on Thaddaeus. Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor. See TFG "#Mr 3:19|". #Lu 6:17| XLII. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) A. INTRODUCTORY STATEMENTS. #Mt 5:1,2 Lu 6:17-20| And he came down with them. The twelve apostles whom he had just chosen. And stood on a level place. Harmonists who wish to make this sermon in Luke identical with the sermon on the mount recorded by Matthew, say that Jesus stood during the healing of the multitude, and that he afterwards went a little way up the mountain-side and sat down when he taught (#Mt 5:1|). The "level place" is meant by our translators to indicate a plateau on the side of the mountain, and not the plain at its base. In this translation they were influenced somewhat by a desire to make the two sermons one. It is more likely that the sermons were not identical, yet they were probably delivered about the same time, for in each Evangelist the sermon is followed by an account of the healing of the centurion's servant. As it is a matter of no great importance whether there was one sermon or two, and as they contain many things in common, we have taken the liberty of combining them to save time and space. The sermon is an announcement of certain distinctive features of the kingdom of heaven, which was said to be at hand. From all Judaea and Jerusalem. See TFG "#Mr 1:5|". Tyre and Sidon. See TFG "#Mt 11:21|". (TFG 227) #Lu 6:18| Unclean spirits. See TFG "#Mr 1:23|". #Lu 6:19| And all the multitude sought to touch him. By comparing this with the foregoing section, we shall find that Mark had described this same crowd (#Mr 3:10|); the only difference between him and Luke being that he tells about it the day before Jesus chose the twelve apostles, while Luke describes its presence on the day after the event. Thus one substantiates the other. (TFG 228) #Lu 6:20| And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples. Luke notes the eloquent look of Jesus here and elsewhere (#Lu 22:61|). While spoken to all, the sermon was addressed to the disciples, revealing to them the nature of the kingdom, and contrasting with it: 1. Popular expectation; 2. The Mosaic system; 3. Pharisaic hypocrisy. XLII. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) B. BEATITUDES: PROMISES TO MESSIAH'S SUBJECTS #Mt 5:3-12 Lu 6:20-26| Blessed are ye poor: for yours is the kingdom of God. See TFG "#Mt 5:3|". (TFG 228) #Lu 6:21| Blessed are ye that hunger now, etc. These three beatitudes given by Luke (#Lu 6:20,21|), like the two closing beatitudes of Matthew (#Mt 5:9-11|) are pronounced not upon character, but upon those in certain trying conditions. They are addressed to the disciples (#Lu 6:17|), and are meant to strengthen and encourage them to continue in the life of sacrifice when discipleship demanded. For light upon the meaning of these beatitudes, see such passages as these: #Mt 10:37-39 16:24-26 Mr 10:28-30 Mt 10:22-25|. The service to which Jesus called meant poverty, hunger, and tears, but it led to rich reward (#1Co 11:23-33 12:1-5|). (TFG 231) #Lu 6:22| Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, etc. See TFG "#Mt 5:11|". #Lu 6:23| Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy. See TFG "#Mt 5:12|". #Lu 6:24,25| But woe unto you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation. Woe unto you that are full now! for ye shall hunger. Woe unto you, ye that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep. These three woes are respectively the converse of the three beatitudes recorded by Luke (#Lu 6:20,21|). This converse is to be expected, for as long as sin lasts woes stand over against beatitudes as Ebal against Gerizim (see #De 11:29 Jos 8:33|). But the woe here expressed by the Saviour is more of a cry of compassion than a denunciation, and may be translated, "Alas for you!" The first woe applies to those who love and trust in riches (#Mr 10:24|). Jesus does not clearly define the line beyond which the possession of riches becomes a danger, lest any, fancying himself to be on the safe side of the line, should lull himself to repose and be taken off his guard. Riches are always dangerous, and we must be ever watchful against their seduction. The second woe is kindred to the first. Righteousness is the soul's true food. Those who feast upon it shall be satisfied, but those who satiate themselves with this world shall waken some day to a sense of emptiness, since they have filled themselves with vanity (#Ec 2:1-11 Jas 5:1-6|). The third woe is not pronounced upon those who make merriment an occasional relief (#Pr 17:22 15:13,15|); but upon those who, through lack of earnestness, make it a constant aim. Half the world has no higher object in life than to be amused (#Pr 13:14 Ec 7:6|). Those who sow folly shall reap a harvest of tears. The truth of this saying was abundantly fulfilled in the Jewish wars, which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem about forty years later. (TFG 232-233) #Lu 6:25| Woe unto you, etc. See TFG "#Lu 6:24|". #Lu 6:26| Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for in the same manner did their fathers to the false prophets. This is the converse to the beatitudes pronounced upon those who are reviled, etc. (#Mt 5:11|). A righteous life rebukes an evil one, and the general tendency of evil is to deride that which rebukes it. This tendency caused the wicked of Christ's times to say that he had a demon (#Mt 11:18, Lu 7:33 Joh 10:20|), and that he cast out demons by the power of Beelzebub (#Mt 12:24 Mr 3:22 Lu 11:15|). If our lives draw to themselves no reproach, they can not be right in the sight of God. A good name is more to be desired than great riches; but we must not sacrifice our fidelity to Christ in order to attain it. If we adhere strictly to the virtues which Christ enjoined, we shall find that the world has an evil name for every one of them. Earnest contention for his truth is called bigotry; loyalty to his ordinances is dubbed narrowness; strict conformity to the laws of purity is named puritanism; liberality is looked upon as an effort to court praise; piety is scorned as hypocrisy, and faith is regarded as fanaticism. (TFG 233-234) #Lu 6:27| XLII. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) D. RELATION OF MESSIANIC TEACHING TO OLD TESTAMENT AND TRADITIONAL TEACHING. #Mt 5:17-48 Lu 6:27-30,32-36| Love your enemies, do good to them that hate you. See TFG "#Mt 5:43|". #Lu 6:28| Bless then that curse you. #1Co 4:12|. Love your enemies, and pray for them that persecute you. See TFG "#Mt 5:43|". #Lu 6:29| To him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other. See TFG "#Mt 5:39|". And from him that taketh away thy cloak withhold not thy coat also. See TFG "#Mt 5:40|". #Lu 6:30| Give to every man that asketh of thee. See TFG "#Mt 5:42|". The teaching of this passage (#Lu 6:29,30|) has been explained above. It is repeated because of its difference in verbiage, and because its position here illustrates the spirit of the verses which precede it. (TFG 248) #Lu 6:31| XLII. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) I. THE GOLDEN RULE #Mt 7:12 Lu 6:31| And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise. See TFG "#Mt 7:12|". (TFG 266) #Lu 6:32| And if ye love them that love you, what thank have ye? See TFG "#Mt 5:46|". #Lu 6:33| And if ye do good to them that do good to you, what thank have ye? Compare #Mt 5:42,44|. #Lu 6:34| And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? Compare #Mt 5:42|. #Lu 6:35| But love your enemies, and do them good. #Ex 23:4 Pr 24:17 Ro 12:17,19-21|. And lend, never despairing. See TFG "#Mt 5:43|". "To make our neighbor purchase, in any way, the assistance which we give him is to profit by his misery; and, by laying him under obligations which we expect him in some way or other to discharge, we increase his wretchedness under the pretense of relieving him" (Clarke). And ye shall be sons of the Most High, etc. See TFG "#Mt 5:45|". (TFG 249) #Lu 6:36| Be ye merciful, even as your Father is merciful. See TFG "#Mt 5:48|". #Lu 6:37| XLII. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) G. LAW CONCERNING JUDGING. #Mt 7:1-6 Lu 6:37-42| Judge not, and ye shall not be judged. See TFG "#Mt 7:1|". #Lu 6:38| Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, shall they give into your bosom. This is not necessarily a promise of the return of our gift in kind. It rather means that we shall receive an equivalent in joy and in that blessedness which Jesus meant when he said, "It is more blessed to give than to receive" (#Ac 20:35|). The figurative language is borrowed from the market where the salesman, grateful for past kindnesses, endeavors, by pressing, shaking, and piling up, to put more grain into the measure for us than it will contain. Pockets were unknown to the ancients, and what they wished to take with them was carried in the fold in the bosom of the coat, the girdle below holding it up. Ruth bore this a heavy burden in her mantle which, in the King James Version is mistakenly called the "veil" (#Ru 3:15|). (TFG 261-262) #Lu 6:39| Can the blind guide the blind? shall they not both fall into a pit? Whoso lacks the knowledge of divine truth can not so lead others that they shall find it. They shall both fall into the pitfalls of moral error and confusion. (TFG 262) #Lu 6:40| The disciple is not above his teacher: but every one when he is perfected shall be as his teacher. Pupils do not surpass their teachers, or, if they do, they are self-taught, and hence do not owe to their teachers that wherein they rise superior to them. All that the scholar can hope from his teacher is that when he is perfectly instructed he shall be as his teacher. But if the teacher is a blind man floundering in a ditch (#Lu 6:39|), he affords but a dismal prospect for his pupils. The perfection of such teaching is certainly not desirable. (TFG 262) #Lu 6:41,42| And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? See TFG "#Mt 7:3|". (TFG 262-263) #Lu 6:43| XLII. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) J. THE TWO WAYS AND THE FALSE PROPHETS. #Mt 7:13-23 Lu 6:43-45| For there is no good tree that bringeth forth corrupt fruit; nor again a corrupt tree that bringeth forth good fruit. Compare with #Mt 7:16-18,20|. #Lu 6:44| For each tree is known by its own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes. Compare #Mt 7:16|. #Lu 6:45| For out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaketh. Teachers are to be judged by their conduct as men, and also by the effect of their teaching. If either be predominantly bad, the man must be avoided. But we must not judge hastily, nor by slight and trivial actions, for some specimens of bad fruit grown on good trees. See #Mt 7:20|. (TFG 267) #Lu 6:46| XLII. THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. (A mountain plateau not far from Capernaum.) K. CONCLUSION AND APPLICATION: TWO BUILDERS. #Mt 7:24-29 Lu 6:46-49| And why call ye me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say? Why do ye give me the title, but withhold the service which should go with it? See #Mal 1:6|. (TFG 269) #Lu 6:47| Every one that cometh unto me, and heareth my words, and doeth them. See TFG "#Mt 7:24|". #Lu 6:48| He is like a man building a house, who digged and went deep, and laid a foundation upon the rock. See TFG "#Mt 7:24|". And when a flood arose, the stream brake against that house, and could not shake it. See TFG "#Mt 7:25|". #Lu 6:49| But he that heareth, and doeth not, is like a man that built a house upon the earth without a foundation. See #Mt 7:26|. Against which the stream brake, and straightway it fell in; and the ruin of that house was great. See TFG "#Mt 7:27|".
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