Luke 7#Lu 7:1| XLIII. HEALING THE CENTURION'S SERVANT (At Capernaum.) #Mt 8:1,5-13 Lu 7:1-10| After he had ended all his sayings in the ears of the people, he entered into Capernaum. See TFG "#Mt 8:1|". #Lu 7:2| A certain centurion's servant. A slave boy. (TFG 271) #Lu 7:3| And when he heard concerning Jesus. The sequel shows that the centurion had probably heard how Jesus had healed the son of his fellow-townsman (#Joh 4:46-54|). He sent unto him elders of the Jews, asking him that he would come and save his servant. To reconcile Matthew (#Mt 8:5|) and Luke, we have only to conceive of the centurion as coming to the edge of the crowd about Jesus, but modestly refraining from coming into the Lord's immediate presence. (TFG 271) #Lu 7:4| Saying, He is worthy that thou shouldest do this for him. The centurion evidently believed in and worshiped God, but, influenced probably by his profession, did not become a proselyte by being circumcised and conforming entirely to the Mosaic law. He was what later Jews would have termed a Proselyte at the Gate, and not a full-fledged Proselyte of Righteousness. (TFG 271) #Lu 7:5| For he loveth our nation, and himself built us our synagogue. The ruins of Capernaum show the ruins of a synagogue. It was a beautiful structure, built of white limestone, shows by its architectural features that it was built in the time of the Herods, and there is little doubt that it is the one which this pious Gentile erected, and in which Jesus taught and healed. On the synagogue, see TFG "Mr 1:39". (TFG 271-272) #Lu 7:6| For I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof. See TFG "#Mt 8:8|". #Lu 7:7| Wherefore neither thought I myself worthy to come unto thee: but say the word, and my servant shall be healed. The centurion, well knowing that it was unlawful for Jews to go into the houses of the Gentiles, lest they should sully the sanctity which they desired to maintain, wished to spare Jesus any embarrassment. Whatever he may have thought of this custom with regard to the Pharisees, he attributed to Jesus so high a degree of sanctity that he accepted the doctrine as true in reference to him. The centurion showed his great faith partly by believing that Jesus could heal by a word, but chiefly in his lofty conception of Jesus as compared with himself. The less faith we have, the less we esteem Jesus, and the more faith we have, the less we esteem ourselves. As Jesus rises, we sink in the scale of our estimation. The centurion's faith would have been wonderful enough in an Israelite, but it was all the more wonderful when found in the bosom of a Gentile. The word "found" (#Lu 7:10 Mt 8:10|) suggests that Jesus came seeking faith: he will come seeking it again (#Lu 18:8|). The elders, little knowing the wideness of our Lord's vision and sympathy, supposed that Jesus would look upon the splendid synagogue erected for the Jewish people as a sufficient motive for granting their request (#Lu 7:5|). Even the apostles were slow to learn that at heart Jesus knew neither Jew nor Gentile. (TFG 272) #Lu 7:8| For I also am a man set under authority. See TFG "#Mt 8:9|". #Lu 7:9| And when Jesus heard these things, he marvelled at him, etc. See TFG "#Mt 8:10|". #Lu 7:10| And they that were sent, returning to the house, found the servant whole. The centurion, long before this when he was building the synagogue, had doubtless heard with delight concerning the wonderful works wrought by the mighty prophets in the olden time; he little dreamed that his own eyes should see them all surpassed. (TFG 274) #Lu 7:11| XLIV. JESUS RAISES THE WIDOW'S SON. (At Nain in Galilee.) #Lu 7:11-17| Soon afterwards. Many ancient authorities read "on the next day." He went into a city called Nain; and his disciples went with him, and a great multitude. We find that Jesus had been thronged with multitudes pretty continuously since the choosing of his twelve apostles. Nain lies on the northern slope of the mountain, which the Crusaders called Little Hermon, between twenty and twenty-five miles south of Capernaum, and about two miles west of Endor. At present it is a small place with about a dozen mud hovels, but still bears its old name, which the Arabs have modified into Nein. It is situated on a bench in the mountain about sixty feet above the plain. (TFG 275) #Lu 7:12| There was carried out one that was dead, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with her. Places of sepulture were outside the towns, that ceremonial pollution must be avoided. To this rule there was an exception. The kings of Judah were buried in the city of David (#2Ki 16:20 21:18,26|). The Jews were careful to give public expression to their sympathy for those who were bereaved (#Joh 11:19|). The death of an only child represented to them as to us the extreme of sorrow (#Jer 6:26 Zec 12:10 Am 8:10|). But in this case the sorrow was heightened by the fact that the mother was a widow, and hence evidently dependent upon her son for support. Her son had comforted her in her first loss of a husband, but now that her son was dead, there was none left to comfort. (TFG 275) #Lu 7:13| And when the Lord saw her. Some take this use of the phrase "the Lord," as an evidence of the late date at which Luke wrote his Gospel; but the point is not well taken, for John used it even before Jesus ascension (#Joh 21:7|). He had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not. As the funeral procession came out of the gate, they met Jesus with his company coming in. Hence there were many witnesses to what followed. But the miracle in this instance was not wrought so much attest our Lord's commission, or to show his power, as to do good. As Jesus had no other business in Nain but to do good, we may well believe that he went there for the express purpose of comforting this forlorn mother. Compare #Joh 11:1-15|. Good blessings may come to us when reason speaks and God's wise judgment answers; but we get our best blessings when our afflictions cry unto him and his compassion replies. (TFG 275-276) #Lu 7:14| And he came nigh and touched the bier: and the bearers stood still. The word here translated "bier" may mean a bier or coffin, and the authorities are about equally divided as to which it was. It was more likely a stretcher of boards, with the pallet or bed upon it, and the body of the young man wrapped in linen lying upon the bed. Coffins, which were common in Babylon and Egypt, were rarely used by the Jews, save in the burial of people of distinction; and, if we may trust the writing of the later rabbis, the burial of children. When they were used, the body was placed in them, and borne without any lid to the place of sepulture. We find no coffin in the burial of either Lazarus or Jesus. Jesus was, no doubt, known to many in Nain, and it is no wonder that those who bore the bier stood still when he touched it. Though we can not say that he had raised the dead prior to this, we can say that he had healed every kind of disease known among the people, and therefore his act would beget a reasonable expectancy that he might do something even here. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. Here, as in the other instances where Jesus revived the dead, we find that he issues a personal call to the party whose remains are before him. It suggests the sublime thought that he has as full dominion and authority over the unseen as over the seen; and that should he issue a general call, all the dead would revive again as obediently and immediately as did the single one to whom he now spoke (#Joh 5:28,29|). The command of Jesus, moreover, is spoken with the ease and consciousness of authority known only to Divinity. Compare the dependent tone of Simon Peter (#Ac 3:6|). (TFG 276-277) #Lu 7:15| And he that was dead sat up, and began to speak. Thus showing that not only life, but also health and strength, were restored. And he gave him to his mother. As the full fruitage of his compassion. The scene suggests that Christ will, with his own hands, restore kindred to kindred in the glorious morning of resurrection. (TFG 277) #Lu 7:16| And fear took hold on all: and they glorified God. Because the power of God had been so signally manifested among them. They recognized the presence of God's power and mercy, yet by no means apprehended the nearness of his very person. Saying, A great prophet is arisen among us: and, God hath visited his people. Expectation of the return of one of the prophets was at that time widely spread. See #Lu 9:8,19|. That they should esteem Jesus as no more than a prophet was no wonder, for as yet even his apostles had not confessed him as the Christ. In state and conduct Jesus appeared to them too humble to fulfill the popular ideas of Messiahship. But in wisdom and miracle he outshone all God's former messengers. The "visiting" of God refers to the long absence of the more strikingly miraculous powers of God as exercised through the prophets. None had raised the dead since the days of Elisha (#2Ki 4:32-37|). (TFG 277) #Lu 7:17| And this report went forth concerning him in the whole of Judaea, and all the region round about. This great miracle caused the fame of Jesus to fill all Judaea as well as Galilee. It seems, from what next follows, to have reached John the Baptist in his prison on the east of the Dead Sea. See #Mt 11:2|. (TFG 277) #Lu 7:18| XLV. THE BAPTIST'S INQUIRY AND JESUS' DISCOURSE SUGGESTED THEREBY. (Galilee.) #Mt 11:2-30 Lu 7:18-35| #Lu 7:19| John calling unto him two of his disciples. See TFG "#Mt 11:2|". #Lu 7:20| And when the men were come unto him, they said, John the Baptist hath sent us unto thee, saying, Art thou he that cometh, or look we for another? This passage has been a puzzle to expositors from the very earliest times. Being unable to understand how the Baptist, being an inspired prophet and favored with visions of the supernatural, could give way to skeptical doubts, they have exhausted their inventive genius to explain what John meant by his question. Among these many explanations the best is that given by Alford, namely: that John wished to get Jesus to publicly declare himself for the sake of quieting all rumors concerning him, his fault being kindred to that of Jesus' mother when she tried to hasten Jesus' hour at the wedding of Cana (#Joh 2:4|). But the plain, unmistakable inference of the text is that John's faith wavered. The Bible does not represent the saints as free from imperfection. It does not say that inspiration is omniscience, or that visions and miracles remove doubts. It took two miracles to persuade Gideon (#Jud 6:36-40|); Moses harbored distrust (#Ex 3:11-13 4:1-17|), and was guilty of unbelief (#Nu 20:12|); Elijah despaired of God's power (#1Ki 19:4-10);| Jeremiah was slow of belief, and in his despondency cursed the day of his birth (#Jer 20:7,14-18|). But the most instructive parallel is that of Simon Peter. He witnessed the transfiguration of Jesus, beheld the glory of God, and heard the voice of the Father (#Mt 17:1-6|); yet he sank below the Baptist, and denied the Lord with cursing; and no man has ever thought it at all incredible that he should do so. The trial of John's faith, though not so clearly depicted as that of Peter, was perhaps equally searching. His wild, free life was now curbed by the irksome tedium of confinement. His expectations were not fulfilled. The unfruitful trees had not been cut down, the grain had not been winnowed, nor the chaff burned, nor should he see any visible tendency toward these results. Moreover, he held no communion with the private life of Jesus, and entered not into the sanctuary of his Lord's thought. We must remember also that his inspiration passed away with the ministry, on account of which it was bestowed, and it was only the man John, and not the prophet, who made the inquiry. The inquiry itself, too, should be noted. It is not, Are you what I declared you to be? but, Being all of that, are you the one who should come, or must we look for another? John no doubt shared with all Jews the idea that Messiah was to set up an earthly kingdom, and seeing in Jesus none of the spirit of such a king, he seems to have questioned whether Jesus was to be the finality, or whether he was to be, like himself, a forerunner, preparing the way for the ultimate Messiah. He did not grasp the thought that Jesus was both Alpha and Omega; that Jesus, the lowly servant of humanity, by service and sacrifice is evermore preparing the way for Jesus the King. See TFG "#Mt 11:3|". (TFG 278-280) #Lu 7:21| In that hour he cured many of diseases and plagues and evil spirits, and on many that were blind he bestowed sight. It may be inferred that Jesus withheld answering the messengers (#Lu 7:20|) and went on with his works of grace, that these might testify to John more potently than mere words of assertion. Jesus did not work miracles to gratify skeptical curiosity, but he did use them, as here, to strengthen wavering faith (#Mr 9:24 Joh 11:15 14:11|). (TFG 280) #Lu 7:22| And he answered and said unto them, Go and tell John the things which ye have seen and heard. See TFG "#Mt 11:4|". The poor have good tidings preached to them. See TFG "#Mt 11:5|". #Lu 7:23| And blessed is he, whosoever shall find no occasion of stumbling in me. See TFG "#Mt 11:6|". #Lu 7:24| He began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, etc. See TFG "#Mt 11:7|". #Lu 7:25| But what went ye out to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? See TFG "#Mt 11:8|". #Lu 7:26| But what went ye out to see? a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and much more than a prophet. See TFG "#Mt 11:9|". #Mt 7:27| This is he of whom it is written, etc. See TFG "#Mt 11:10|". #Lu 7:28| Among them that are born of women, etc. See TFG "#Mt 11:11|". #Lu 7:29| And all the people. The common people, and not the rulers. When they heard, and the publicans, justified God, being baptized with the baptism of John. They justified or approved the wisdom of God in sending such a prophet as John and establishing such an ordinance as baptism. (TFG 283) #Lu 7:30| But the Pharisees and the lawyers rejected for themselves the counsel of God, being not baptized of him. The counsel of God was that the nation should be brought to repentance by John, that it might be saved by Jesus; but the Pharisees frustrated this plan so far as they were concerned, by their proud refusal to repent. All who followed their example shared their unhappy success. It is noteworthy that Jesus emphasizes baptism as the test as to whether men justify or reject God's counsel. (TFG 283) #Lu 7:32| They are like unto children that sit in the marketplace, and call one to another. See TFG "#Mt 11:16|". #Lu 7:33,34| For John the Baptist is come, etc. See TFG "#Mt 11:18|". #Lu 7:36| XLVI. JESUS' FEET ANOINTED IN THE HOUSE OF A PHARISEE. (Galilee.) #Lu 7:36-50| And one of the Pharisees desired him that he would eat with him. We learn from #Lu 7:40| that the Pharisee's name was Simon. Because the feast at Bethany was given in the house of Simon the leper, and because Jesus was anointed there also, some have been led to think that Luke is here describing this supper. See #Mt 26:6-13 Mr 14:3-9 Joh 12:1-8|. But Simon the leper was not Simon the Pharisee. The name Simon was one of the most common among the Jewish people. It was the Greek form of the Hebrew Simeon. The New Testament mentions nine and Josephus twenty Simons, and there must have been thousands of them in Palestine at that time. The anointing at Bethany was therefore a different occasion from this. And he entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat down to meat. Literally, "reclined at meat." The old Jewish method of eating was to sit cross-legged on the floor or on a divan, but the Persians, Greeks and Romans reclined on couches, and the Jews, after the exile, borrowed this custom. We are not told in plain terms why the Pharisee invited Jesus to eat with him. The envy and cunning which characterized his sect leads us to be, perhaps, unduly suspicious that his motives were evil. The narrative, however, shows that his motives were somewhat akin to those of Nicodemus. He wished to investigate the character and claims of Jesus, and was influenced more by curiosity than by hostility--for all Pharisees were not equally bitter (#Joh 7:45-52|). But he desired to avoid in any way compromising himself, so he invited Jesus to his house, but carefully omitted all the ordinary courtesies and attentions which would have been paid to an honored guest. Jesus accepted the invitation, for it was his custom to dine both with Pharisees and publicans, that he might reach all classes. (TFG 290-291) #Lu 7:37| And behold, a woman who was in the city, a sinner; and when she knew that he was sitting at meat in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster cruse of ointment. Because the definite article "the" is used before the word "city," Meyer says it was Capernaum, and because Nain is the last city mentioned, Wiesler says it was Nain, but it is not certain what city it was. Older commentators say it was Magdala, because they hold the unwarranted medieval tradition that the sinner was Mary Magdalene, that is, Mary of Magdala. No trustworthy source has ever been found for this tradition, and there are two good reasons for saying that this was not Mary Magdalene: 1. She is introduced soon after (#Lu 8:2|) as a new character and also as a woman of wealth and consequence. See also #Mt 27:55|. 2. Jesus had delivered her from the possession of seven demons. But there is no connection between sin and demon-possession. The former implies a disregard for the accepted rules of religious conduct, while the latter implies no sinfulness at all. This affliction was never spoken of as a reproach, but only as a misfortune. The cruse which she brought with her was called "an alabaster." Orientals are very fond of ointments and use them upon the face and hair with profusion. They were scented with sweet-smelling vegetable essence, especially that extracted from the myrtle. Originally the small vases, jars or broad-mouthed bottles, in which the ointment was stored, were carved from alabaster, a variety of gypsum, white, semi-transparent and costly. Afterwards other material was used, but the name "alabaster" was still applied to such cruses. That used by Mary of Bethany was probably the highest grade ointment in the highest-priced cruse (#Joh 12:3|). The context here leaves us free to suppose that both the cruse and the unguent were of a cheaper kind. (TFG 291-292) #Lu 7:38| And standing behind at his feet, weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. To see this scene we must picture Jesus stretched upon the couch and reclining on his left elbow. The woman stood at the foot of the couch behind his feet. His feet were bare; for every guest on entering left his sandals outside the door. The woman, feeling strongly the contrast between the sinlessness of Jesus and her own stained life, could not control her emotions. "The tears," says Brom, "poured down in a flood upon his naked feet, as she bent down to kiss them; and deeming them rather fouled than washed by this, she hastened to wipe them off with the only towel she had, the long tresses of her own hair. She thus placed her glory at his feet (#1Co 11:15|), after which she put the ointment upon them." (TFG 292) #Lu 7:39| This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what manner of woman this is that toucheth him, that she is a sinner. Public opinion said that Jesus was a prophet (#Lu 7:16|), and Simon, from the Pharisee's standpoint, feared that it might be so; and therefore no doubt felt great satisfaction in obtaining this evidence which he accepted as disproving the claims of Jesus. He judged that if Jesus had been a prophet he would have both known and repelled this woman. He would have known her because discerning of spirits was part of the prophetic office--especially the Messianic office (#Isa 11:2-4 1Ki 14:6 2Ki 1:1-3 5:26|). Compare with #Joh 2:25|. He would have repelled her because, according to the Pharisaic tradition, her very touch would have rendered him unclean. The Pharisees, according to later Jewish writings, forbade women to stand nearer to them than four cubits, despite the warning of God (#Isa 65:5|). Thus reasoning, Simon concluded that Jesus had neither the knowledge nor the holiness which are essential to a prophet. His narrow mind did not grasp the truth that it was as wonderful condescension for Christ to sit at his board as it was to permit this sinner to touch him. (TFG 292-293) #Lu 7:40| And Jesus answering said unto him, Simon, I have somewhat to say unto thee. And he saith, Teacher, say on. Jesus heard Simon's thoughts (#Lu 7:39|) and answered them. Simon called Jesus "Teacher," little thinking how fully Jesus was about to vindicate the justice of the title, thus given him in compliment. (TFG 293) #Lu 7:41| A certain lender had two debtors: the one owed five hundred shillings, and the other fifty. The denarius or shilling was a silver coin issued by Rome which contained nearly seventeen cents' worth of that precious metal. The two debts, therefore, represented respectively about seventy-five dollars, and seven dollars and fifty cents. But at that time a denarius was a day's wages for a laboring man (#Mt 20:2,4,12,13|), so that the debt is properly translated into our language as if one owed five hundred and the other fifty days of labor. (TFG 293) #Lu 7:42| When they had not wherewith to pay, he forgave them both. In this brief parable God represents the lender, and the woman the big and Simon the little debtor. Simon was (in his own estimation) ten times better off than the woman; yet they were each in an equally hopeless case--having nothing with which to pay; and each in an equally favored case--being offered God's free forgiveness. Forgiveness is expressed in the past tense in the parable, but merely as part of the drapery and not for the purpose of declaring Simon's forgiveness. It indicates no more than that Jesus was equally willing to forgive both. But the Pharisee did not seek his forgiveness, and the absence of all love in him proved that he did not have it. Which of them therefore will love him most? It was Jesus' custom to thus often draw his verdicts from the very lips of the parties concerned (#Lu 10:36,37 Mt 21:40,41|). (TFG 293) #Lu 7:43| Simon answered and said, He, I suppose, to whom he forgave the most. The "suppose" of Simon betrays a touch of supercilious irony, showing that the Pharisee thought the question very trivial. And he said unto him, Thou hast rightly judged. Simon's words were more than an answer. They were a judgment as well. Like Nathan with David (#2Sa 12:1-7|), Jesus had concealed Simon's conduct under the vestments of a parable, and had thus led him to unwittingly pronounce sentence against himself. Simon, the little debtor, was a debtor still; having no acts of gratitude to plead in evidence of his acquittal. From this point the words of Jesus take up the conduct of Simon which we should here picture to ourselves. "We must imagine the guests arriving; Simon receiving them with all courtesy, and embracing each in turn; slaves ready to was the dust of the road from their sandaled feet, and to pour sweet olive oil over their heads to soften the parched skin. See #Ge 18:4 19:2 24:32 Ru 3:3 1Sa 25:41 Ps 23:5 141:5 Ec 9:8 Da 10:3| #Am 6:6 Mt 6:17|. But there is one of the guests not thus treated. He is but a poor man, invited as an act of condescending patronage. No kiss is offered him; no slave waits upon him; of course a mechanic can not need the luxuries others are accustomed to!" (TFG 293-294) #Lu 7:44| And turning to the woman, he said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman? Simon is to look upon the woman as one whose actions stood in contrast to his own. I entered into thy house, thou gavest me no water for my feet: but she hath wetted my feet with her tears, and wiped them with her hair. Jesus here draws the first contrast. In the East, where the feet without stockings are placed in sandals instead of shoes, water becomes essential to one who would enter a house. The guest should be afforded an opportunity to wash the dust from his feet, not only for comfort's sake, but also that he might not be humiliated by soiling the carpets on which he walked, and the cushions on which he reclined. The trifling courtesy Simon had omitted; but the woman had amply supplied his omission, bathing the Lord's feet in what Bengel well calls "the most priceless of waters." (TFG 294) #Lu 7:45| Thou gavest me no kiss: but she, since the time I came in, hath not ceased to kiss my feet. We have here the second contrast. A kiss was the ordinary salutation of respect in the East. Sometimes the hand was kissed, and sometimes the cheek (#2Sa 15:5 19:39 Mt 26:49 Ac 20:37 Ro 16:16|). We may note incidentally that we have no record of a kiss upon the cheek of Jesus save that given by Judas (#Mt 26:48,49 Mr 14:44,45 Lu 22:47|). The woman had graced the feet of Jesus with those honors which Simon had withheld from his cheek. (TFG 294-295) #Lu 7:46| My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but she hath anointed my feet with ointment. Anointing was a mark of honor which was usually bestowed upon distinguished guests (#Am 6:6 Ps 23:5 141:5|). To anoint the feet was regarded as extreme luxury (Pliny, Natural History, 13.4). In this third case Jesus makes a double comparison. To anoint the feet was more honored than to anoint the head, and the ointment was a more valuable and worthy offering than the mere oil which ordinary courtesy would have proffered. (TFG 295) #Lu 7:47| Wherefore I say unto thee, Her sins, which are many, are forgiven; for she loved much: but to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little. Her love was the result, and not the cause, of her forgiveness. Our sins are not forgiven because we love God, but we love God because they are forgiven (#1Jo 4:19|). Such is the inference of the parable, and such the teaching of the entire New Testament. We search the story in vain for any token of love on the part of Simon. (TFG 295) #Lu 7:48| Thy sins are forgiven. See TFG "#Mr 2:5|". #Lu 7:49| And they that sat at meat with him began to say within themselves, Who is this that even forgiveth sins? They were naturally surprised at this marvelous assumption of authority, but in the light of what had just been said they did not dare to express themselves. Ignorance of Christ's person and office caused them to thus question him. It is easy to stumble in the dark. We are not told that Simon joined in asking this question. (TFG 295) #Lu 7:50| And he said unto the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace. Jesus did not rebuke his questioners, because the process of forgiveness was something which could not be demonstrated to their comprehension, and hence their error could not be made clear. Jesus attributed her forgiveness to her faith. "Peace" was the Hebrew and "grace" was the Greek salutation. It is here used as a farewell, and means "Go in the abiding enjoyment of peace." Several valuable lessons are taught by this incident (#Lu 7:36-50|): 1. That the sense of guiltiness may differ in degree, but nevertheless the absolute inability of man to atone for sin is common to all. 2. As sin is against Christ, to Christ belongs the right and power to forgive it. 3. That conventional respectability, having no such flagrant and open sins as are condemned by the public, is not conscious of its awful need. 4. That those who have wandered far enough to have felt the world's censure realize most fully the goodness of God in pardoning them, and hence are moved to greater expressions of gratitude than are given by the self-righteous. But we must not draw the conclusion that sin produces love, or that much sin produces much love, and that therefore much sin is a good thing. The blessing which we seek is not proportioned to the quantity of the sins; but is proportioned to the quantity of sinful sense which we feel. We all have sin enough to destroy our souls, but many of us fail to love God as we should, through an insufficient sense of sinfulness. (TFG 295-296)
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