Mark 11#Mr 11:1| CV. JESUS' TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM. (From Bethany to Jerusalem and back, Sunday, April 2, A.D. 30.) #Mt 21:1-12,14-17 Mr 11:1-11 Lu 19:29-44 Joh 12:12-19| Bethphage. The name is said to mean "house of figs," but the derivation is disputed. Canon Cook and others think that the region on the eastern slope of Olivet was called Bethphage, and that Bethany was located in it. If it was a village, all trace of it has long since vanished, and it is not worth while to give the guesses and surmises of commentators as to its location. But it was evidently near Bethany. (TFG 572) #Mr 11:2| Go your way into the village that is over against you. Probably Bethphage, for Jesus started from Bethany. And straightway as ye enter into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon no man ever yet sat. Numerous Scripture references show that the ass was held in high estimation in the East. The sons of the judges used them, and David's mule was used at the coronation of Solomon (#Jud 10:4 1Ki 1:33|). It is specifically stated that no man had ever sat upon this colt, for if the colt had been used by men it would have been unfit for sacred purposes (#Nu 19:2 De 21:3 1Sa 6:7|). (TFG 572) #Mr 11:3| And if any one say unto you, Why do ye this? say ye, The Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send him back hither. The owner of the ass was no doubt a disciple or well-wisher of Jesus, and therefore readily consented to respond to the Master's need. Such a well-wisher might readily be found in a multitude ready to lay their garments in the road to honor Christ. These words are usually construed to be a promise on the part of Christ that he would return the colt when through with him. But such a promise seems rather out of keeping with the dignity of the occasion. We prefer to construe the words as referring to the movements of Christ's two messengers from the neighborhood of Bethany to Bethphage and back again, or to a backward movement along the caravan's line of march. (TFG 573-574) #Mr 11:4| And they went away, and found a colt tied at the door without in the open street. The streets being narrow, one would very seldom see an ass tied in one. (TFG 574) #Mr 11:7| And they bring the colt unto Jesus, and cast on him their garments. The garments were the loose cloaks worn over the tunics or shirts. This cloak survives in the abba or hyke of the modern Arab. The unbroken colt would of course have no saddle, and these loyal disciples lent their cloaks to supply the deficiency, and to do Jesus royal honor. Compare the enthronement of Jehu (#2Ki 9:13|). They prepared both beasts, not knowing which he would choose to ride. (TFG 574) #Mr 11:8| And many. See TFG "#Mt 21:8|". And others branches. Palm-trees were never abundant in Palestine, but there were many around Jericho, through which city these Galilean pilgrims had so recently come. They were date palms, the leaves of which were often ten feet in length. Which they had cut from the fields. They are now comparatively rare, but are found in the plains of Philistia. The palm branch is emblematic of triumph and victory (#Le 23:40 Re 7:9|). See also 1 Macc. 13:51 and 2 Macc. 10:7. It has been the custom of all lands to bestrew in some manner the pathway of those who are thought worthy of the highest honor. When Lafayette visited our fathers after the Revolution, the roads over which he approached our cities were strewn with flowers. Thus over flowers Alexander entered Babylon, and Xerxes crossed the bridge of the Hellespont over a myrtle-strewn pathway. Monier tells of a Persian ruler who in modern times made his honored progress over a road for three miles covered with roses. But it is more natural to contrast the entry of Jesus with the Roman triumphs so popular in that day. The wealth of conquered kingdoms was expended to insure their magnificence. We find none of that tinsel and specious glitter in the triumph of Christ. No hired multitudes applaud him; no gold-broidered banners wave in his honor. There is nothing here but the lusty, honest shout of the common people, and the swaying of the God-made banners of the royal palms. The rich in purse, the learned in schoolcraft and the high in office were, as usual, not there (#1Co 1:26|). (TFG 574, 576-577) #Mr 11:9| And they that went before, and they that followed. Jesus approached the city leading a multitude of pilgrims, and we have seen from John's account (#Joh 12:12,13|) that another multitude came out of the city to meet him: Jesus approached the city between two great multitudes. Cried, Hosanna. This is the Greek form or spelling of two Hebrew words, Hoshiah-na, which means, "Save now," or, "Save, I pray," na being a particle of entreaty added to imperatives. The two words are taken from #Ps 118:25|, which was recognized as the Messianic Psalm. The shout "Hosanna" was customarily used at the feast of the tabernacles and the other festivals. It was a shout of exaltation about equivalent to "Salvation." Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. #Ps 118:26|. (TFG 577, 575) #Mr 11:10| Hosanna in the highest. This phrase is taken to mean in the highest degree or highest strains or in the highest heavens. It is likely they were calling upon heaven to participate in glorifying and to ratify their shouts of salvation. The Evangelists give us the various cries of the multitude, for they did not all cry one thing (#Mr 11:9,10 Mt 21:9 Lu 19:38 Joh 12:13|). The cries, if seriously construed, were a fore-recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus, but popular cries are soon caught up and are as fickle as the impulses which beget them. But the public recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus gave weight to the accusation made by Simon Peter on the day of Pentecost that they had slain the Messiah (#Ac 2:36|). Compare #Ac 3:14,15|. (TFG 577) #Mr 11:11| And he entered into Jerusalem. His route led him down the steep face of Olivet, past Gethsemane, across the stone bridge which spans the Kedron, and up the slope of Moriah to the eastern gate of the city. Into the temple. See TFG "#Mt 21:12|". It being now eventide. A general expression covering the period both before and after sunset. He went out unto Bethany with the twelve. Having inspected the temple as his Father's house, Jesus withdrew from it, for in the present state of rancor which fermented within his enemies it was not safe for him to spend the night within Jerusalem. (TFG 579, 580) #Mr 11:12| CVI. BARREN FIG-TREE. TEMPLE CLEANSED. (Road from Bethany and Jerusalem. Monday, April 4, A.D. 30.) #Mt 21:18,19,12,13 Mr 11:12-18 Lu 19:45-48| And on the morrow. On the Monday after the triumphal entry. When they were come out from Bethany. Returning to Jerusalem. He hungered. Breakfast with the Jews came late in the forenoon, and these closing days of our Lord's ministry were full of activity that did not have time to tarry at Bethany for it. Our Lord's hunger implies that of the disciples also. (TFG 590) #Mr 11:13| And seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might find anything thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for it was not the season of figs. Two varieties of figs are common in Palestine. The bicura or boccore, an early fig with large green leaves and with fruit which ripens in May or June, and sometimes earlier near Jerusalem. Thomson found ripe fruit of this variety as early as May in the mountains of Lebanon, a hundred fifty miles north of Jerusalem, and Professor Post, of Beyrut, states that fig-trees there have fruit formed as early as February, which is fully ripe in April. The second variety is the summer fig or kermus. This ripens its main crop in August, but its later fruitage often hangs on all winter when the weather is mild, dropping off when the new spring leaves come. As the fruit usually appears before the leaves, the leaves were a promise that fruit might be found, and the fruit, though not perfectly ripe, is considered edible when the leaves are developed. Though it was too early for fruit, it was also too early for leaves. The tree evidently had an unusually favorable position. It seemed to vaunt itself by being in advance of the other trees, and to challenge the wayfarer to come and refresh himself. (TFG 581) #Mr 11:14| No man eat fruit from thee henceforward for ever. And his disciples heard it. The disciples did not pause to watch the effect of Christ's words upon the tree (#Mt 21:19|). But from the degree to which it had shriveled when they saw it next day it became evident to them that it had begun to wither as soon as Christ had finished uttering its sentence. Our Lord here performed a miracle of judgment unlike any other of his wonderful works. The reader can hardly fail to note how perfectly this fig-tree, in its separation from the other trees, its showy pretensions, its barrenness of results and its judgment typifies the Jewish people. In fact, Christ's treatment of it appears in some respects to be a visible and practical application of the principles which he had formerly set forth in a parable (#Lu 13:6-9|). But we must not too confidently make such an application of the parable since Jesus himself gave no hint that he intended us so to apply it. (TFG 581-582) #Mr 11:15| And he entered into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and them that bought in the temple. Three years before, Jesus had thus cleansed the temple at the first passover of his ministry, for an account of which see #Joh 2:13-25|. (TFG 582) #Mr 11:16| And he would not suffer that any man should carry a vessel through the temple. The temple space being level and roomy tempted the people of Jerusalem to use it as a thoroughfare, or short-cut from one part of the city to another, but Jesus did not permit them to carry any sack, bag, jug, pail, basket, parcel or such like thing through the sacred enclosure. The Greek word skeuos which is here translated "vessel" embraces all kinds of household furniture. It is translated "goods" at #Mt 12:29| and #Lu 17:31|. The Septuagint uses it as equivalent to "instruments of war" at #De 1:41|, and to "vestments" at #De 22:5|. (TFG 582) #Mr 11:17| Is it not written. The prophecy cited is a combination of #Isa 56:7| and #Jer 7:11|. My house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations? but ye have made it a den of robbers. The caves in certain sections of Palestine have been immemorially infested with robbers, and Jesus, because of the injustice of extortion practiced by the merchants, likens the polluted temple to such a den. The dickering and chafing and market talk were probably not unlike the grumbling and quarreling of thieves as they divide the booty. (TFG 582) #Mr 11:18| The chief priests and the scribes . . . feared him. Overawed by the magnitude of the popular demonstration made on Sunday, the Jewish rulers feared to attempt any violent measures in dealing with Jesus. But they neglected no opportunity by appeals to Jesus himself, by treacherous questions, etc., to divert the popular favor from the Lord that they might put him to death. (TFG 582-583) #Mr 11:19| CVII. FINDING THE FIG-TREE WITHERED. (Road from Bethany to Jerusalem, Tuesday, April 4, A.D. 30.) #Mt 21:20-22 Mr 11:19-25 Lu 21:37,38| And every evening he went forth out of the city. To the Mount of Olives (#Lu 21:37|). (TFG 583) #Mr 11:20| And as they passed by in the morning, they saw the fig tree withered away from the roots. It was completely withered--dead root and branch. We have observed before (see TFG "Lu 19:41") that one coming into Jerusalem from Bethany is apt to come down the steep side of Olivet, and that one returning to Bethany is apt to take the easier grade, though longer way, around the south end of the mountain. This fig-tree was apparently on the short road, and was sentenced Monday morning. The disciples, returning by the other or longer road to Bethany or its vicinity, did not see the tree Monday evening, but they saw it Tuesday morning, when they again came back by this short road. From these facts argue a method of coming and going, from which it may be fairly inferred that Jesus, on the day of his triumphal entry, approached Jerusalem by the short road, though Stanley, Edersheim, and many others, think he came in over the long road. (TFG 583-584) #Mr 11:21| And Peter calling to remembrance saith unto him, Rabbi, behold. Peter is surprised both at the suddenness and at the fullness of the judgment. Since the miracles of Jesus, heretofore, had been only those of mercy, Peter boldly invited the Lord to discuss this miracle, hoping for more light on its meaning. The fig tree which thou cursedst. Devotedst to death. Is withered away. Jesus had simply condemned it to fruitlessness, but his condemnation involved it in an evil which it justly deserved. The judgment of God reveals; and that which is dead in fact is made dead in appearance also. (TFG 584) #Mr 11:23| Whosoever shall say unto this mountain. Olivet. Be thou taken up and cast into the sea and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that what he saith cometh to pass; he shall have it. The disciples whom Jesus addressed were very soon to enter upon a task which would seem to them as difficult as the removal of mountains. The license and immorality of paganism, and the bigotry and prejudice of Judaism, would seem insurmountable obstacles in their pathway to success. They needed to be assured that the power of faith was superior to all these adverse forces, and that the judgments of God could accomplish in a moment changes which apparently could not be wrought out in the tedious course of years. As we today look back upon this promise of Christ we can see that the mountains then standing have, indeed, been removed; and that which seemed vigorous and flourishing has been blasted in a day. (TFG 585) #Mr 11:24| All things whatsoever ye pray and ask for, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them. Jesus here lays down the broad general rule in the application of which we must be guided by other Scriptures. The rule is, indeed, liberal and gracious, and the limitations are just and reasonable. We must not expect to obtain that which it is unlawful for us to desire (#Jas 4:2,3|), or which it is unwise for us to seek (#2Co 12:7-9|), nor must we selfishly run counter to the will of God (#Lu 22:42 1Jo 5:14,15|), nor must we expect that God shall perform a miracle for us, for miracles have ceased--in short, we must pray to God in full remembrance of the relationship between us, we must consider that he is the Ruler and we his subjects, and are not to think for one moment that by faith we can alter this eternal, unchangeable relation. (TFG 584-585) #Mr 11:25| Whensoever ye stand praying. A customary attitude (#Lu 18:13|). Praying, forgive, if ye have aught against any one. Forgiveness has already been enjoined. See TFG "#Mt 6:12|". Here our Lord emphasizes the need of forgiveness because he had just performed a miracle of judgment, and he wished his disciples to understand that they must not exercise their miraculous gifts with a vengeful, unforgiving spirit. They must suffer evil and not retaliate with miracles of judgment. (TFG 585) #Mr 11:27| CVIII. IN REPLY TO THE QUESTIONS AS TO HIS AUTHORITY, JESUS GIVES THE THIRD GREAT GROUP OF PARABLES. (In the Court of the Temple. Tuesday, April 4, A.D. 30.) A. INTRODUCTION #Mt 21:23-27 Mr 11:27-33 Lu 20:1-8| And they come again to Jerusalem. Jesus and the disciples. And as he was walking in the temple. The large outer court of the temple, known as the court of the Gentiles, was thronged during the feasts, and was no doubt the part selected by Jesus and his apostles when they taught or preached in the temple. We thrice find them on that side of it where Solomon's porch was located (#Joh 10:23 Ac 3:11 5:23|). There come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders. The Sanhedrin. See TFG "#Mr 8:31|". This committee of that august tribunal came in formal state and with a great show of authority, hoping to make it apparent to the people that Jesus was an unauthorized, self-appointed meddler in matters over which they had exclusive control. (TFG 586) #Mr 11:28| By what authority doest thou these things? or who gave thee this authority to do these things? To regulate and control the affairs of the temple belonged unquestionably and exclusively to the priests and Levites. Knowing that Jesus had no authority from any priest or any scribe, they boldly challenged his right to cleanse the temple or to teach in it, feeling sure that to defend himself he would be forced to publicly declare himself as the Messiah and thus to give them the matter for accusation which they had long sought (#Joh 10:24|). (TFG 586-587) #Mr 11:30| The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men? answer me. The question which Jesus asked was intimately and inseparably connected with the question which they had asked. Jesus, of course, did not derive his authority from John the Baptist, but John had testified plainly to the Messiahship of Jesus, and had in no uncertain terms, designated Jesus as immeasurably greater than himself. Now, if the Pharisees admitted that John was a heaven-sent messenger or witness (of which fact his baptism was propounded as a test, since it was a religious ordinance introduced on his authority), then John had already answered the Sanhedrin that Jesus derived his authority from his Messiahship, and hence, all that the Sanhedrin had to do to satisfy their minds was simply to believe John. But if, on the other hand, the Pharisees rejected John's pretensions and claims as a heaven-sent messenger in the face of the almost universal popular conviction, then what was there for Jesus to present his claims to so blind, bigoted, and unreasoning a body? (TFG 587) #Mr 11:31| If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did ye not believe him? When he testified to the Messiahship of Jesus (#Joh 1:7,15,34 3:26-36 10:40-42|). The Sanhedrin could not admit that the messenger was heaven-sent and yet deny his testimony. (TFG 587) #Mr 11:32| But should we say, From men--they feared the people: for all verily held John to be a prophet. It should be noted in their consultation there was no effort either to ascertain or to speak the truth. The question as to whether John really was or was not a prophet was in no sense the subject of their investigation. They were merely deciding what to say. (TFG 588) #Mr 11:33| We know not. They were seeking for the most expedient answer, and as neither truthful answer was expedient, they resolved to falsely deny any knowledge of the case. Men of such brazen dishonesty could not be dealt with openly and fairly as could sincere seekers after truth. Their spoken lie was, "We know not," but their inward and true answer was, "We will not tell," and Jesus answered the suppressed truth saying, "Neither tell I." Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things. How readily the subtle minds of the Jewish people would justify Jesus in thus declining to submit the question of his authority to judges who at that very moment publicly confessed their inability to even hazard an opinion, much less render a decision, as to the authority of John the Baptist, who claims were in popular estimation so obvious. It was plain that however well these men might judge human credentials, the divine testimonials of a prophet or of the Messiah were above their carnal sphere. Thus Jesus put his enemies to confusion in the first of man conflicts of that perilous Tuesday. But we may well imagine that they were rendered more bitter by the evidence of a wisdom so much beyond any which they possessed. (TFG 588)
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