Matthew 10

#Mt 10:1| And he called unto him his twelve disciples. See TFG "#Mr 6:7|". Unclean spirits. See TFG "#Mr 1:23|". #Mt 10:2| XLI. AFTER PRAYER JESUS SELECTS TWELVE APOSTLES. (Near Capernaum.) #Mt 10:2-4 Mr 3:13-19 Lu 6:12-16| Now the names of the twelve apostles are these. Mark and Luke give the names of the apostles at the time when they were chosen, but Matthew gives them at the time when they were sent out. The twelve. See TFG "#Mr 3:14|". {*} Apostles. See TFG "#Lu 6:13|". Simon, who is called Peter. See TFG "#Mr 3:16|". And Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother. This selection of brothers suggests that the bonds of nature may strengthen those of grace. See TFG "#Mr 3:17|". {*} The names of the apostles are recorded four times in the following different arrangements and orders. Some think that Matthew divides them into groups of two, so that he may show us who went together when Jesus sent them out in pairs (#Mr 6:7|). But it is idle to speculate as to the differences in arrangement. We note, however, that the twelve are divided into three quaternions, or groups of four, and that each has a fixed leader. ---------------------------------+---------------------------------- MATTHEW 10:2-4 | MARK 3:16-19 ---------------------------------+---------------------------------- Simon, called Peter | Simon, surnamed Peter and Andrew his brother | and James the son of Zebedee James the son of Zebedee | and John the brother of James and James his brother | and Andrew ---------------------------------+---------------------------------- Philip | and Philip and Bartholomew | and Bartholomew Thomas | and Matthew and Matthew the publican | and Thomas ---------------------------------+---------------------------------- James the son of Alphaeus | and James the son of Alphaeus and Thaddaeus | and Thaddaeus Simon the Cananaean | and Simon the Cananaean and Judas Iscariot, | and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him | who also betrayed him ---------------------------------+---------------------------------- ---------------------------------+--------------------------------- LUKE 6:14-16 | ACTS 1:13 ---------------------------------+--------------------------------- Simon, named Peter | Peter and Andrew his brother | and John and James | and James and John | and Andrew ---------------------------------+--------------------------------- and Philip | Philip and Bartholomew | and Thomas and Matthew | Bartholomew and Thomas | and Matthew ---------------------------------+--------------------------------- and James the son of Alphaeus | James the son of Alphaeus and Simon called the Zealot | and Simon the Zealot and Judas the son of James | and Judas the son of James and Judas Iscariot, | who became a traitor | ---------------------------------+--------------------------------- (TFG 220-223) #Mt 10:3| Philip. See TFG "#Joh 1:43|". For notes on Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus Thaddaeus, see TFG "Mr 3:18". #Mt 10:4| Simon the Cananaean. See TFG "#Mr 3:18|". Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. See TFG "#Mr 3:19|". #Mt 10:5| These twelve Jesus sent forth. See TFG "#Mr 6:7|". #Mt 10:6| But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. This first commission restricted Christ's messengers to the Jewish people, and the parts of Palestine which they inhabited, but his second commission impelled them to go everywhere and to preach to every creature (#Mr 16:15|). As Jesus himself was sent only to the Jews, so during his days on earth he sent his disciples only to them. Also see TFG "Mt 15:24". (TFG 363-364) #Mt 10:7| As ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. It was set up about a year later, on the day of Pentecost, under the direction of the Holy Spirit (#Ac 2:1-4|). (TFG 364) #Mt 10:8| Freely ye received, freely give. Here is the true rule of giving. Paul repeats it at #1Co 16:2|. If we would obey this rule, we would make this a happy world. (TFG 364) #Mt 10:9,10| Get you no gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses. See TFG "#Mr 6:8|". #Mt 10:11| And there abide till ye go forth. See TFG "#Mr 6:10|". #Mt 10:13| And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you. The form of salutation on entering a house was, "Peace to this house." The apostles are told to salute each house, and are assured that the peace prayed for shall return to them if the house is not worthy; that is, they shall receive, in this case, the blessing pronounced on the house. (TFG 365) #Mt 10:14| And whosoever shall not receive you, etc. See TFG "#Mr 6:11|". As ye go forth out of that house pf that city, shake off the dust of your feet. The word "house" indicates a partial and the word "city" a complete rejection. (TFG 365) #Mt 10:15| It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment. For a comment on similar remarks, see TFG "Mt 11:24". God judges all men with reference to their opportunities. (TFG 365) #Mt 10:16| I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves. At this point Jesus passes from the first, or temporary, to the second, or final, commission of the apostles, for all the persecutions enumerated were encountered under the latter. (TFG 365) #Mt 10:17| Councils, and . . . synagogues. Councils and synagogues were both Jewish powers. On the synagogue, see TFG "Mr 1:39". (TFG 366) #Mt 10:18| Before governors and kings. The phrase "governors and kings" indicates Gentile powers, for most all governors and kings were then appointed by Rome. (TFG 366) #Mt 10:19| Be not anxious how or what ye shall speak. For comment on similar words, see TFG "Lu 12:11". (TFG 366) #Mt 10:21| Brother shall deliver up brother to death. Jesus here foretells the intense religious bigotry with which his ministers should be opposed. Having foretold persecution, he here predicts actual martyrdom. (TFG 366) #Mt 10:22| Ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake. The term "all" is used in its general and not in its absolute sense. The apostles had some few friends among the unbelievers. Jesus gives the exact cause of the hatred. It would not be because of any personal faults or peculiarities, but simply because of adherence to Christ. But he that endureth to the end, the same shall be saved. Since the persecution was unto death, the endurance which should meet it must be to the end of life. (TFG 366) #Mt 10:23| When they persecute you in this city, flee into the next. The apostles were not to meet obduracy with obduracy. Moving as swiftly as they could along the line of least resistance, they would not be able to evangelize all the Jewish cities before the time set for their desolation--before the Son of man should come in the demonstration of his judicial power and destroy the Jewish nationality. (TFG 366) #Mt 10:25| It is enough for the disciple that he should be as his teacher. Jesus applied similar words to the Jewish teachers. See TFG "#Lu 6:40|". If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, etc. Jesus here warns the apostles that they can not expect better treatment than he himself received--no, not so good. Nor should they ask exemption from what he himself suffered. (TFG 367) #Mt 10:28| Be not afraid of them that kill the body. See TFG "#Lu 12:4|". #Mt 10:31| Fear not therefore. See TFG "#Lu 1:30|". #Mt 10:33| Whosoever shall deny me before men. For comment on similar remarks see TFG "Lu 12:8". #Mt 10:36| A man's foes shall be they of his own household. For comment on similar language see TFG "Lu 12:53". #Mt 10:37| He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me. Love for the old religion would make the members of the Jewish and pagan families persecute those who apostasized from it to give their hearts to Christ. But if the Jew and the pagan thus held their religions at a higher value than the ties of kindred, much more should the Christian value his religion above these ties. (TFG 367) #Mt 10:38| And he that doth not take his cross and follow after me, is not worthy of me. This is doubtless an allusion to the manner of his death, and being the first of the kind it must have been very puzzling to his disciples, unless explained by prior words of Jesus, of which we have no record. As such allusion its full meaning is this: "If I bear for each the vicarious cross and suffer for each the full measure of the divine displeasure, then each should be willing cheerfully to follow me that he may obtain the benefits of my sacrifice, and if the light cross of human displeasure deter him from this, he is not worthy of me." (TFG 368) #Mt 10:39| He that findeth his life shall lose it; and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it. Jesus declares that all self-seeking is self-losing. He that makes his own life the chief object of his endeavor really fails the more he seems to succeed. He who saves and husbands his powers to expend them on those lower carnal joys which a sinner calls "life" shall lose those higher spiritual joys which God calls "life," and vice versa. For a comment on similar expression, see TFG "Mr 8:35". (TFG 368) #Mt 10:40| He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me. Having depicted in all their darkness the persecutions which awaited the apostles, Jesus here, by an easy transition, proceeds to declare the honor of their apostleship in that they were representatives directly of Christ, and indirectly of the Father. (TFG 398) #Mt 10:41,42| He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet. That is, because he is a prophet. Shall receive a prophet's reward, etc. Whoever honors a prophet, a righteous man, or a disciple, as such recognizes that person's relation to God as the ground of that act; and to that extent honors God in the act, just as he who performs a similar act in the name of a friend thereby honors that friend. A prophet's reward is not synonymous, however, with final salvation, for salvation is a matter of grace and not of reward. (TFG 368-369)
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