1 Samuel 14

1 Jonathan goes and miraculously smites the Philistine's garrison.

15 A divine terror makes them beat themselves.

17 Saul, not staying the priest's answer, sets on them.

21 The captivated Hebrews, and the hidden Israelites, join against them.

24 Saul's unadvised adjuration hinders the victory.

31 He restrains the people from eating blood.

35 He builds an altar.

37 Jonathan, taken by lot, is save by the people.

47 Saul's victories, strength, and family.

A.M. 2917. B.C. 1087. An. Ex. Is. 404. it came to passupon a day. or, there was a day. Jonathan.

39-45; 13:2,22; 18:1-4; 2Sa 1:4,5,25,26

he told not.

25:19; Jud 6:27; 14:6; Mic 7:5

in the uttermost.

13:15,16; Isa 10:28,29

a pomegranate.The word {rimmon,} in Arabic {romman,} whence the Portuguese {romaa,} denotes the pomegranate, both tree and fruit; called by naturalists {malus punica} or {malo-granatum.} It is, according to the Linnean system, a genus of the {icosandria monogynia} class of plants; and is a low tree, growing very common in Palestine, and other parts of the East. It has several small angular boughs, very thick and bushy, covered with a reddish bark, and some of them armed with sharp thorns. They are garnished with small, narrow, spear-shaped leaves, like those of the myrtle, but not so sharp, of a green colour, inclining to red. Its blossoms are large, beautiful, of an elegant red colour, inclining to purple, composed of several stalks resembling a rose, in the hollow of the cup: this cup is oblong, hard, purple, having a figure somewhat like that of a bell. It is chiefly valued for its fruit, which is exceedingly beautiful, of the form and size of a large apple, with a reddish rind, and red within; being full of small kernels, with red grains, replenished with a generous liquor, of which, Sir John Chardin informs us, they still make considerable quantities of wine in the East, particularly in Persia. But as the pomegranate tree, from its low growth, is but little adapted for pitching a tent under, it is probable that Rimmon here is the name of the rock mentioned in Jud 20:45.



called Ahimelech. I-chabod's.



2:28; Ex 28:26-32

the passages.


forefront. Heb. tooth.


Bozez. i.e., shining. Seneh. i.e., a bush or tooth.

Come.This action of Jonathan's was totally contrary to the laws of war; no military operation should be undertaken without the knowledge and command of the general. But it is highly probable, that this gallant man was led to undertake the hazardous enterprise by an immediate divine impulse; and by the same influence was kept from informing the soldiers, and even from consulting his father, who might have opposed his design.


17:26,36; Ge 17:7-11; Jud 15:18; 2Sa 1:20; Jer 9:23,26

Eph 2:11,12; Php 3:3

it may be.

2Sa 16:12; 2Ki 19:4; Am 5:15; Zep 2:3

for there is no restraint.Where there is a promise of defense and support, the weakest, in the face of the strongest enemy, may rely upon it with the utmost confidence.

De 32:30; Jud 7:4-7; 2Ch 14:11; Ps 115:1-3; Zec 4:6; Mt 19:26

Ro 8:31

Do all.

10:7; 2Sa 7:3; Ps 46:7; Zec 8:23

we will pass.

Jud 7:9-14


Ge 24:13,14; Jud 6:36-40

Tarry. Heb. Be still.

this shall be a sign.

10:7; Ge 24:14; Jud 7:11; Isa 7:11-14

out of the holes.

22; 13:6; Jud 6:2

Come up to us.Meaning, that they would cause them to repent of their audacity. This was the favourable sign which Jonathan had requested.

10; 17:43,44; 2Sa 2:14-17; 2Ki 14:8

Come up after me.

Ge 24:26,27,42,48; Jud 4:14; 7:15; 2Sa 5:24

climbed up.

Ps 18:29; Heb 11:34


Le 26:7,8; De 28:7; 32:30; Jos 23:10; Ro 8:31

an half acre of land. or, half a furrow of an acre of land.The original is obscure and variously understood; but it is probably a proverbial expression for a small space.


there was trembling.

Jos 2:9; Jud 7:21; 2Ki 7:6,7; Job 18:11; Ps 14:5

the spoilers.


the earth quaked.

Ex 19:18; Mt 24:6; 27:50,51

very great trembling. Heb. trembling of God.

Ge 35:5; Le 26:36,37; 2Sa 5:24; Da 5:6God will in some way or other direct the steps of those who acknowledge him in all their ways, and seek unto him for direction with full purpose of heart. Sometimes we find most comfort in that which is least our own doing, and into which we have been led by the unexpected, but well observed, turns of Providence.

melted away.

Ps 58:7; 68:2

beating down.

20; Jud 7:22; 2Ch 20:22-25; Isa 19:2


Bring hither.The Septuagint reads [Prosagage to ephoud, hoti autos ere to ephoud en te hemera ekeine enopiou Israel.] "Bring hither the ephod; for he bore the ephod on that day before Israel:" which Houbigant and others think is the true reading. Finding that his son Jonathan and his armour-bearer were absent, Saul wished to consult the high-priest; but the tumult increasing, he says to him, "Withdraw thine hand:" i.e., desist form consulting the ephod on the present occasion, and immediately hastened to make the best use he could of this astonishing victory.

4:3-5; 30:8; Nu 27:21; Jud 20:18,23,27,28; 2Sa 11:11; 15:24-26

For the ark.

5:2; 7:1

noise. or, tumult. Withdraw.

24; 13:11; Jos 9:14; Ps 106:13; Isa 28:16

assembled themselves. Heb. were cried together. everyman's.

16; Jud 7:22; 2Ch 20:23; Isa 9:19-21; 19:2

the Hebrews.Probably such as they held in bondage, or who were their servants. Instead of (häivrim,} "the Hebrews," the LXX. evidently read {haâvdim,} for they have [Loi douloi,] "the slaves;" but this reading is not countenanced by any other version, nor by any MS.

29:4; Jud 7:23

hid themselves.

13:6; 31:7

the battle.The LXX. and Vulgate add here, [kai pas ho laos en meta Saoul hos deka chiliades andron,] {Et erant cum Saul, quasi decem millia virorum.} "And [all the people who were, LXX.] there were with Saul about ten thousand men;" but this is supported by no other authority.

the Lord.

Ex 14:30; Jud 2:18; 2Ki 14:27; Ps 44:6-8; Ho 1:7




27-30; Le 27:29; Nu 21:2; De 27:15-26; Jos 6:17-19,26; Jud 11:30

Jud 11:31; 21:1-5; Pr 11:9; Ro 10:2; 1Co 16:22

I may be.

Jud 5:2; 1:28; Ps 18:47

all they.

De 9:28; Mt 3:5

honey.This was wild honey, which to this day abounds in Judea; and bursting from the comb, runs down the hollow trees, rocks, etc.

Ex 3:8; Nu 13:27; Mt 3:4

the people.

Ec 9:2

his eyes.

29; 30:12; Pr 25:26



faint. or, weary.

My father.

1Ki 18:18

see.It is well known, that hunger and fatigue produce faintness and dim the sight; and on taking a little food, this affection is immediately removed.

had there.

Ec 9:18

from Michmash.The distance, Calmet states to be three or four leagues.


Jos 10:12; 19:42



the people.The people having abstained from food the whole of the day, and being now faint through hunger and fatigue, they flew upon the cattle, and not taking time to bleed them properly, they eagerly devoured the flesh with the blood, directly contrary to the law--another bad effect of Saul's rash adjuration.

did eat.

Ge 9:4; Le 3:17; 7:26,27; 17:10-14; 19:26; De 12:16,23,24

Eze 33:25; Ac 15:20,29

transgressed. or, dealt treacherously.

Mt 7:5; Ro 2:1

with him. Heb. in his hand.


built.It is probable that Saul converted the great stone, on which the cattle had been slaughtered, into an altar, on which sacrifices were offered, before the people attempted to proceed any further. This we are told was the first he had built. Samuel, as a prophet and priest, had hitherto erected the altars, but Saul seems to have thought he had sufficient authority to erect one himself, without the prophet, as he had once offered sacrifice without him.

7:9,17; Jud 21:4; Ho 8:14; 2Ti 3:5

the same, etc. Heb. that altar he began to build unto theLord.

Let us go.

Jos 10:9-14,19; Jer 6:5

let us not leave.

11:11; Jos 11:14

Then said the priest.It is evident that Ahiah, who had before been interrupted by Saul's impatience, doubted of the propriety of pursuing the Philistines that night, and properly counselled them to enquire of the Lord.

Nu 27:21; Ps 73:28; Isa 48:1,2; 58:2; Mal 2:7; Jas 4:8

Shall I go.

23:4,9-12; 30:7,8; Jud 1:1; 20:18,28; 2Sa 5:19,23; 1Ki 22:5,15

he answered.

28:6; Eze 14:3-5; 20:3

Draw ye near.

10:19,20; Jos 7:14-26

chief. Heb. corners.

Nu 24:17; Jud 20:2; 2Sa 18:3; Ps 47:9; Zec 10:4; Mt 21:42; Eph 2:20

24,44; 19:6; 20:31; 22:16; 28:10; 2Sa 12:5; Ec 9:2

Do what seemeth.

7,36; 2Sa 15:15

Therefore.Both the Septuagint and Vulgate add much to this verse: [Kai eipe Saoul, Kyrie Lo Theos Israel, ti Loti ouk apekrithes to doulo sou semeron? ei en emoi e en lonathan to Luio mou he adikia, Kyrie ho Theos Israel dos delous kai ean tade eipe, dos de to lao sou Israel, dos de osioteta, k.t.l.] {Et dixit Saul ad Dominum Deum Israel; Domine Deus Israel da indicium: quid est quòd non responderis servo tuo hodie? Si in me, aut in Jonatha filio meo est iniquitas hæc, da ostensionem: aut si hæc iniquitas est in populo tuo, da sanctitatem, etc.} "And Saul said [to the Lord God of Israel, Vulg.] Lord God of Israel [give a sign, Vulg.] Why is it that thou has not answered thy servant to-day? If the iniquity be in me, or in my son Jonathan, [O Lord God of Israel, LXX.] make it manifest; and if thou say thus, give to thy people Israel, give mercy," etc., [but Vulg. Or, if this iniquity be in thy people, give sanctification," etc.]

Give a perfect lot. or, Shew the innocent.

Pr 16:33; Ac 1:24

And Saul.

10:20,21; Jos 7:16-18; Jon 1:7

escaped. Heb. went forth.


Tell me.

Jos 7:19; Jon 1:7-10

I did but.



25:22; Ru 1:17; 2Sa 3:9; 19:13

thou shalt.

39; Ge 38:24; 2Sa 12:5,31; Pr 25:16

who hath.

23; 19:5; Ne 9:27

there shall not.The people judged rightly, that the guilt was contracted by Saul, and not by Jonathan; and therefore they rescued him from the hands of his rash and severe father.

2Sa 14:11; 1Ki 1:52; Mt 10:30; Lu 21:18; Ac 27:34

he hath.

2Ch 19:11; Isa 13:3; Ac 14:27; 15:12; 21:19; Ro 15:18; 1Co 3:9

2Co 6:1; Php 2:12,13; Re 17:14; 19:14

the people.

Isa 29:20,21





2Ki 14:27


11:11; 12:2


2Sa 10:6; 1Ki 11:23

gathered an host. or, wrought mightily. smote.

15:3-7; Ex 17:14; De 25:19


31:2; 1Ch 8:33; 9:39

name of the first-born.

18:7-21; 25:44; 2Sa 3:13-16; 6:20-23

the name of the captain.

17:55; 2Sa 2:8; 3:27

Abner. Heb. Abiner.



when Saul.

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