1 Samuel 20

1 David consults with Jonathan for his safety.

11 Jonathan and David renew their covenant by oath.

18 Jonathan's token to David.

24 Saul, missing David, seeks to kill Jonathan.

35 Jonathan affectionately takes his leave of David.


19:19-24; 23:26-28; Ps 124:6-8; 2Pe 2:9

What have.

12:3; 24:11,17; Ps 7:3-5; 18:20-24; 2Co 1:12; 1Jo 3:21

God forbid.

14:45; Ge 44:7; Jos 22:29; 24:16; Lu 20:16

shew it me. Heb. uncover mine ear.

12; 9:15; *marg:

Ps 40:6; Isa 50:5; Joh 15:15; 17:8


De 6:13; Jer 4:2; Heb 6:16

but truly.

25:26; 27:1; 2Sa 15:21; 2Ki 2:2,4,6

as thy soul.

1:26; 17:55; Jer 38:16

but a step.

27:1; De 28:66; Ps 116:3; 1Co 15:30,31; 2Co 1:9,10

Whatsoever, etc. or, Say what is thy mind, and I will do,etc.

desireth. Heb. speaketh, or thinketh.

the new moon.The months of the Hebrews were lunar months, and they reckoned from one new moon to another: and, as their feasts, particularly the passover, were reckoned according to this, they were very scrupulous in observing the first appearance of each new moon. On these new moons, they offered sacrifices, and feasted together: but the gathering together of all the families of a tribe on such occasions seems to have taken place only once in the year.

6; Nu 10:10; 28:11; 2Ki 4:23; Ps 81:3; Col 2:16

that I may.

19; 19:2; Ps 55:12; Pr 22:3; Joh 8:59; Ac 17:14


17:58; Joh 7:42

sacrifice. or, feast.

9:12; 16:2-5

It is well.

De 1:23; 2Sa 17:4


9; 25:17; Es 7:7

deal kindly.

Ge 24:49; 47:29; Jos 2:14; Ru 1:8; Pr 3:3

thou hast.

16; 18:3; 23:18

if there be.

Jos 22:22; 2Sa 14:32; Ps 7:4,5; Ac 25:11

why shouldest.

1Ch 12:17; Ps 116:11

then would.

38,42; 19:2

answer thee.

30-34; 25:10,14,17; Ge 42:7,30; 1Ki 12:13; Pr 18:23


O Lord.This verse is evidently deficient. The LXX. have [kyrios ho Theos Israel oiden,] "The Lord God of Israel doth know;" the Syraic and Arabic, "The Lord God of Israel is witness;" either of which makes good sense. But two of Dr. Kennicott's MSS. supply the word {chai,} "liveth;" and the text reads thus: "As the Lord God of Israel liveth, when I have sounded my father,--if there be good unto David, and I then send not unto thee," etc.; which is a still better sense.

Jos 22:22; Job 31:4; Ps 17:3; 139:1-4

sounded. Heb. searched.

Pr 20:5; 25:2,3

shew it thee. Heb. uncover thine ear.


The Lord do.

3:17; 25:22; Ru 1:17; 2Sa 3:35; 19:13; 1Ki 19:2; 20:10

the Lord be.

17:37; Jos 1:5; 1Ch 22:11,16; Mt 28:20; Php 4:9

he hath been with my father.

10:7; 11:6-13; 14:47; 2Sa 7:15

the kindness.

2Sa 9:3; Eph 5:1,2

thou shalt.

24:21; 2Sa 9:1-7; 21:7

made. Heb. cut.

18:3; Ge 15:18

Let the Lord.

25:22; 31:2; 2Sa 4:7,8; 21:8

because he loved him. or, by his love toward him. for heloved.

18:1,3; De 13:6; 2Sa 1:26; Pr 18:24

new moon.


and thou shalt.Among the forms of salutation and compliment used in Persia, one was, "according to my mode of notation in italics, {Já i sháma khali bud pish yárán,} signifying, Thy place or seat was empty among thy friends. This phrase, or the greater part of it, was frequently addressed to myself when coming into a circle of Persian acquaintances, after an absence of several days or weeks. It reminded me of a passage in the First book of Samuel, (ch. 20:18.) And thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty. And again, David's place was empty." Sir W. Ouseley's Travels, vol i. preface, p.16.

empty. Heb. missed.

quickly. or, diligently. Heb. greatly. hide thyself.

5; 19:2

when the business. Heb. in the day of the business. Ezel.or, that sheweth the way.


no. Heb. not any thing. as the.

Jer 4:2; 5:2; 12:16; Am 8:14


the matter.


the Lord.

42; Ge 16:5; 31:50

the king.

Ps 50:16-21; Pr 4:17; 15:17; 17:1; 21:3,27; Isa 1:11-15; Zec 7:6

Joh 18:28

as at other times.

Jud 16:20

he is not clean.

Le 7:21; 11:24,27,31,40; 15:5,16,17,19-21; Nu 19:16


18:11; 19:9,10,15

the son.

22:7-9,13,14; 25:10; Isa 11:1,2; Mt 13:55; 1Pe 2:4


my brother.



Job 5:2; Pr 14:29; 19:12,19; 21:24; 25:28; 27:3; Jas 1:19,20

Thou, etc. or, Thou perverse rebel. Heb. Son of perverserebellion.

Pr 15:2; 21:24; Mt 5:22; Eph 4:31; 6:4

and unto the.This reflection on the mother of Jonathan, by the passionate monarch, reflects more dishonour on himself than on his brave and noble minded son. Mungo Park gives an instance of the prevalence of the same principles in Africa; for he says, "Maternal affection is every where conspicuous among the Africans, and creates a correspondent return of tenderness in the child. 'Strike me,' said my attendant, 'but do not curse my mother.' I found the same sentiment to prevail universally in all parts of Africa." King Saul, unable to villify Jonathan to his own satisfaction by personal reproaches, outstepped the ordinary abuse of his day, and proceeded to that which was designed to produce unusual vexation, and vented the bitterness of his mind by maligning the character of his own wife and Jonathan's mother.


8; 19:6,11-15

shall surely die. Heb. is the son of death.

26:16; 2Sa 19:28; Ps 79:11; *marg:


19:5; Pr 24:11,12; 31:8,9; Joh 7:51

what hath.

Mt 27:23; Lu 23:22


18:11; 19:10,11; Pr 22:24; Ec 9:3; Jer 17:9


7; Ec 7:9


in fierce.

Ec 7:20; Eph 4:26

he was grieved.

Mr 3:5

at the time.

19; 2Sa 20:5



beyond him. Heb. to pass over him.



Ps 55:6-9; Pr 6:4,5; Mt 24:16-18; Mr 13:14-16; Lu 17:31,32


artillery. Heb. instruments.Rather weapons, as the word {kelim} also denotes; and here means the bow, quiver, and arrows. This is probably the only place in our language in which the word artillery is not applied to cannon or ordinance, but simply to weapons of war.

his lad. Heb. the lad that was his.

and fell.

25:23; Ge 43:28; 2Sa 9:6

and they kissed.

10:1; Ge 29:11,13; 45:15; 2Sa 19:39; Ac 20:37

David exceeded.

18:3; 2Sa 1:26

Go in peace.

22; 1:17; Nu 6:26; Lu 7:50; Ac 16:36

forasmuch as. or, the Lord be witness of that which, etc.


And he arose.

23:18The separation of two such faithful friends was equally grievous to them both, but David's case was the more deplorable: for when Jonathan was returning to his family and friends, David was leaving all his comforts, even those of God's sanctuary, and therefore his grief exceeded Jonathan's; or, perhaps it was because his temper was more tender and his passions stronger. They referred each other to the covenant of friendship that was between them, both of them being comforted thereby in this very mournful separation:--"We have sworn both of us in the name of the Lord, for ourselves and our heirs, that we and they will be faithful and kind to each other from generation to generation."
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