1 Samuel 23

1 David, enquiring of the Lord by Abiathar, rescues Keilah.

7 God shewing him the coming of Saul, and the treachery of the Keilites, he escapes from Keilah.

14 In Ziph Jonathan comes and comforts him.

19 The Ziphites discover him to Saul.

25 At Maon he is rescued from Saul by the invasion of the Philistines.

29 He dwells at En-gedi.

Keilah.Keilah was a city of Judah, situated, according to Eusebius, eight miles from Eleutheropolis, towards Hebron. Sozomen says that the prophet Habakkuk's tomb was shewn there.

Jos 15:44; Ne 3:17,18

rob the.

Le 26:16; De 28:33,51; Jud 6:4,11; Mic 6:15

enquired.In what way David made this enquiry we are not told; but it was probably by means of Abiathar; and therefore it would seem, that with Houbigant, we should read the sixth verse immediately after the first.--This adventure was truly noble and patriotic. Had not David loved his country, and been above all motives of private and personal revenge, he would have rejoiced in this invasion of Judea, as producing a strong diversion in his favour, and embroiling his inveterate enemy. In most cases, a man with David's wrongs would have joined with the enemies of his country, and avenged himself on the author of his calamities; but he thinks of nothing but succouring Keilah, and using his power and influence in behalf of his brethren.

4,6,9-12; 30:8; Nu 27:21; Jos 9:14; Jud 1:1; 2Sa 5:19,23

1Ch 14:10; Ps 32:8; Pr 3:5,6; Jer 10:23


15,23,26; Ps 11:1; Jer 12:5

yet again.

28:6; Jud 6:39

for I will.

Jos 8:7; Jud 7:7; 2Sa 5:19; 2Ki 3:18


when Abiathar.


an ephod.

14:3,18,36,37; Ex 28:30,31

A.M. 2943. B.C. 1061. An. Ex. Is. 430. God hath.

14; 24:4-6; 26:8,9; Ps 71:10,11

he is shut.

Ex 14:3; 15:9; Jud 16:2,3; Job 20:5; Lu 19:43,44



Jer 11:18,19; Ac 9:24; 14:6; 23:16-18


6; 14:18; 30:7; Nu 27:21; Jer 33:3

destroy the city.

8; 22:19; Ge 18:24; Es 3:6; Pr 28:15; Ro 3:15,16

And the Lord.

Ps 50:15; Jer 33:3; Mt 7:7,8

deliver. Heb. shut up.

Ps 31:8

They will.

7; Ps 62:1; 118:8; Ec 9:14,15; Isa 29:15; Heb 4:13

six hundred.

22:2; 25:13; 30:9,10

a mountain.

Ps 11:1-3

the wilderness.Ziph is mentioned in Joshua with Carmel and Maon, near which it seems to have been situated; and as we have mention of Carmel and Maon in the history of David, as adjoining to Ziph, it cannot be doubted that by the Ziph, in the wilderness of which David now lay, and where was the hill of Hachilah, is to be understood Ziph near Carmel and Maon.

Jos 15:24,55


27:1; Ps 54:3,4; Pr 1:16; 4:16

but God.

7; Ps 32:7; 37:32,33; 54:3,4; Pr 21:30; Jer 36:26; Ro 8:31

2Ti 3:11; 4:17,18



De 3:28; Ne 2:18; Job 4:3,4; 16:5; Pr 27:9,17; Ec 4:9-12

Isa 35:3,4; Eze 13:22; Lu 22:32,43; Eph 6:10; 2Ti 2:1

Heb 12:12,13

Fear not.

Isa 41:10,14; Heb 13:6

shall not.

Job 5:11-15; Ps 27:1-3; 46:1,2; 91:1,2; Pr 14:26; Isa 54:17

thou shalt be.

Lu 12:32

I shall be.

Pr 19:21; Ac 28:16; Ro 15:24

that also Saul.

20:31; 24:20; Ac 5:39

18:3; 20:12-17,42; 2Sa 9:1; 21:7

the Ziphites.

22:7,8; 26:1; Ps 54:1; *title

Ps 54:3,4; Pr 29:12

Hachilah.Calmet states, that Hachilah was a mountain about ten miles south of Jericho, where Jonathan Maccabæus built the castle of Massada, west of the Dead Sea, and not far from En-gedi.


on the south. Heb. on the right hand. Jeshimon. or, thewilderness. Eusebius places Jeshimon ten miles south of Jericho, near the Dead Sea; which agrees extremely well with the position of Hachilah, as stated by Calmet.

all the desire.

De 18:6; 2Sa 3:21; Ps 112:10; Pr 11:23

our part.

1Ki 21:11-14; 2Ki 10:5-7; Ps 54:3; Pr 29:26

22:8; Jud 17:2; Ps 10:3; Isa 66:5; Mic 3:11

haunt is. Heb. foot shall be.

Job 5:13

take knowledge.

Mr 14:1,10,11; Joh 18:2,3

I will search.

2Sa 17:11-13; 1Ki 18:10; Pr 1:16; Ro 3:15,16

the thousands.

Nu 10:36; Mic 5:2

the wilderness.Maon, from which the adjoining mountainous district derived its name, was city in the most southern parts of the tribe of Judah, and a neighbouring town to Carmel. Hence Nabal (ch. 25:2) is described as a man of Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and though he might dwell generally in Maon, yet he is styled Nabal the Carmelite, from the place where his estate lay. Calmet supposes it to be the city Minoïs, which Eusebius places in the vicinity of Gaza; and the Moenoemi Castrum, which the Theodosian code places near Beersheba.


25:2; Jos 15:55

the south.


into a rock. or, from the rock.

28; Jud 15:8

David made haste.

19:12; 20:38; 2Sa 15:14; 17:21,22; Ps 31:22


2Ch 20:12; Ps 17:9,11; 22:12,16; 118:11-13; 140:1-9; 2Co 1:8

Re 20:9

there came.

Ge 22:14; De 32:36; 2Ki 19:9; Ps 116:3

the Philistines.

2Ki 19:9; Re 12:16

invaded. Heb. spread themselves upon.

1Ch 14:13

Sela-hammahlekoth. that is, the rock of divisions.Because, says the Targum, "the heart of the king was divided to go hither and thither." Here Saul was obliged to separate himself from David, in order to go and oppose the invading Philistines; which deliverance of David was of such a nature as made the Divine interposition fully visible.

The district around En-gedi, near the western coast of the Dead Sea, is reported by travellers to be a mountainous territory, filled with caverns; and consequently, proper for David in his present circumstances. Dr. Lightfoot thinks this was the wilderness of Judah, in which David was when he penned the 63rd Psalm, which breathes as much pious and devout affection as almost any of his Psalms; for in all places and in all conditions he still kept up his communion with God.--If Christians knew their privileges better, and acted up thereto, there would be less murmuring at the dark dispensations of Divine Providence.

24:1; Ge 14:7; Jos 15:62; 2Ch 20:2; So 1:14; Eze 47:10
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