Esther 1




10:35-39; 13:10-12; 2Ch 31:5,6; Mal 3:8-10; Ga 6:6

and they.That is, the people separated, or set apart, the tenth of the produce of their lands for the use of the Levites; and the Levites separated the tenth of their tithes for the priests.

Nu 18:21-29

sanctified. that is, set apart.

1 Ahasuerus makes royal feasts.

10 Vashti, sent for, refuses to come.

13 Ahasuerus, by the counsel of Memucan, puts away Vashti, and makes the decree of men's sovereignty.

Ahasuerus.Prideaux has shewn satisfactorily that Ahasuerus was the Artaxerxes Longimanus of the Greeks, agreeably to the Septuagint and Josephus. See note on Ezr 6:14.

Ezr 4:6; Da 9:1

from India.

8:9; Isa 18:1; 37:9

an hundred.

Da 6:1


2Sa 7:1; 1Ki 1:46; Da 4:4


2:3; 3:15; 4:16; 9:12-15; Ne 1:1; Da 8:2

A.M. 3542. B.C. 462. he made.

2:18; Ge 40:20; 1Ki 3:15; Da 5:1; Mr 6:21

of Persia.

14; Ezr 1:2; Isa 21:2; Jer 51:11; Da 5:28; 8:20

the nobles.

Da 3:2,3; 6:1,6,7

When he.

Isa 39:2; Eze 28:5; Da 4:30

the riches.

Ps 76:1-4; 145:5,12,13; Da 2:37-44; 7:9-14; Mt 4:8; 6:13; Ro 9:23

Eph 1:18; Col 1:27; Re 4:11


1Ch 29:11,12,25; Job 40:10; Ps 21:5; 45:3; 93:1; Da 4:36; 5:18

2Pe 1:16,17

present. Heb. found. seven days.

2Ch 7:8,9; 30:21-25


Ex 26:1,31,32,36,37

blue. or, violet.


the beds.These were couches, covered with gold and silver cloth, on which the guests reclined; for the Orientals do not sit, but recline at their meals.

7:8; Eze 23:41; Am 2:8; 6:4

red, etc. or, of porphyre, and marble, and alabaster, andstone of blue colour.

vessels of gold.

1Ki 10:21; 2Ch 9:20; Da 5:2-4

royal wine. Heb. wine of the kingdom. state of the king.Heb. hand of the king.

none did compel.Every person drank what he pleased. Among the Greeks, however, each guest was obliged to keep the round, or leave the company: hence the proverb [E pithi, e apithi,] Drink, or begone. Mr. Herbert, in his poem entitled "The Church Porch," has severely reprobated this vile custom. In Britain, however, this demoralizing custom is now almost destroyed, and a new era of social pleasure is arising, by temperate habits, increased domestic comforts, and the spread of gospel truths.

Jer 35:8; 51:7; Hab 2:15,16

the officers.

Joh 2:8

the queen.


the heart.

Ge 43:34; Jud 16:25; 1Sa 25:36,37; 2Sa 13:28; Pr 20:1; Ec 7:2-4

Ec 10:19; Eph 5:18,19



Harbonah. chamberlains. or, eunuchs.

Da 1:3-5,18,19


Pr 16:9; 23:29-33; Mr 6:21,22

fair to look on. Heb. good of countenance.

1Sa 25:3; 2Sa 14:25; Pr 31:30

the queen.This refusal of Vashti's, to expose herself to the view of such a group of drunken Bacchanalians, was highly praiseworthy, and became the dignity of her rank and the modesty of her sex.


Ge 3:16; Eph 5:22,24; 1Pe 3:1

by his chamberlains. Heb. which was by the hand of hiseunuchs. was the king.

Pr 19:12; 20:2; Da 2:12; 3:13,19; Na 1:6; Re 6:16,17


Ex 32:19,22; De 29:20; Ps 74:1; 79:5

the wise.

Jer 10:7; Da 2:2,12,27; 4:6,7; 5:7; Mt 2:1


1Ch 12:32; Mt 16:3

the seven.

Ezr 7:14


2Ki 25:19; Mt 18:10; Re 22:4

What shall we do. Heb. What to do.


Vashti.This reasoning was inconsequent and false. Vashti had not generally disobeyed the king, therefore she could be no precedent for the general conduct of the Persian women. She disobeyed only in one particular; and this, to serve a purpose, Memucan draws into a general consequence: and the rest came into the conclusion, being either too intoxicated to be able to discern right from wrong, or too intent on reducing women to a state of vassalage, to neglect the present favourable opportunity.

done wrong.

Ac 18:14; 25:10; 1Co 6:7,8


2Sa 6:16; Eph 5:33

the ladies.{Saroth,} the princesses: but the meaning is well expressed by our term ladies.

Jud 5:29; 1Ki 11:3

it please the king. Heb. it be good with the king.

21; 3:9; 8:5

from him. Heb. from before him. it be not altered. Heb. itpass not away.

8:8; Da 6:8-15,17Let it be inserted among the permanent laws, and be made a part of the constitution of the empire. The Persians seem to have affected such a degree of wisdom in the construction of their laws, that they never could be amended, and should never be repealed; and this formed the ground of the saying, "The laws of the Medes and Persians that change not."

another. Heb. her companion. that is better.

1Sa 15:28; 1Ki 3:28


De 17:13; 21:21

all the wives.

Eph 5:33; Col 3:18; 1Pe 3:1-7

pleased the king. Heb. was good in the eyes of the king.

19; 2:4; Ge 41:37

into every province.

3:12; 8:9; Da 3:29; 4:1

that every man.Both the law of God and common sense taught this from the foundation of the world; and this parade of enactment was only to deprive Vashti of her crown.

Eph 5:22-24; 1Ti 2:12; Tit 2:4,5

it should, etc. Heb. one should publish it according to thelanguage of his country.



Lu 16:8; Ac 2:5-11; 1Co 14:19,20
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