Ruth 4

1 Boaz calls into judgment the next kinsman.

6 He refuses the redemption according to the manner in Israel.

9 Boaz buys the inheritance.

11 He marries Ruth.

13 She bears Obed, the grandfather of David.

18 The generations of Pharez unto David.

to the gate.

De 16:18; 17:5; 21:19; 25:7; Job 29:7; 31:21; Am 5:10-12,15

the kinsman.


Ho, such.

Isa 55:1; Zec 2:6

the elders.

Ex 18:21,22; 21:8; De 29:10; 31:28; 1Ki 21:8; Pr 31:23; La 5:14

Ac 6:12

he said.

Ps 112:5; Pr 13:10

I thought. Heb. I said I will reveal in thine ear. Buy it.

Jer 32:7-9,25; Ro 12:17; 2Co 8:21; Php 4:8

before the inhabitants.

Ge 23:18; Jer 32:10-12

for there is none.

Le 25:25-29

What day.Or rather, according to the emendations proposed by Houbigant and Dr. Kennicott, and which have been confirmed by a great many MSS. since collated, and agreeably to the ancient versions, "In the day thou purchasest the land from the hand of Naomi, thou wilt also acquire Ruth, the Moabitess, the wife of the dead," etc. This is Boaz's statement of the case to his kinsman, before the people and elders.

to raise up.

3:12,13; Ge 38:8; De 25:5,6; Mt 22:24; Lu 20:28

I cannot.The Targum seems to give the proper sense of this passage: "I cannot redeem it, because I have a wife already; and it is not fit for me to bring another into my house, lest brawling and contention arise in it; and lest I hurt my own inheritance. Do thou redeem it, for thou has no wife; which hinders me from redeeming it."


a man plucked off.This custom does not refer to the law about refusing to marry a brother's widow, but was usual in the transfer of inheritances: for this relative was not a brother, but simply a kinsman; and the shoe was not pulled off by Ruth, but by the kinsman himself. The Targumist, instead of his shoe, renders "his right hand glove," it probably being the custom, in his time, to give that instead of a shoe. Jarchi says, "When we purchase any thing new, it is customary to give, instead of a shoe, a handkerchief or veil."

De 25:7-10


Ye are witnesses.

Ge 23:16-18; Jer 32:10-12

have I.

Ge 29:18,19,27; Pr 18:22; 19:14; 31:10,11; Ho 3:2; 12:12; Eph 5:25

the name.

De 25:6; Jos 7:9; Ps 34:16; 109:15; Isa 48:19; Zec 13:2

ye are witnesses.

Isa 8:2,3; Mal 2:14; Heb 13:4

the Lord.

Ge 24:60; Ps 127:3-5; 128:3-6


Ge 29:32-35; 30:1-24; 35:16-20; 46:8-27; Nu 26:1-65


De 25:9; Pr 14:1

do thou worthily. or, get thee riches, or power. Ephratah.

1:2; Ge 35:16,19; Ps 132:6; Mic 5:2; Mt 2:6

be famous. Heb. proclaim thy name.

the house.

Ge 46:12; Nu 26:20-22


Ge 38:29; 1Ch 2:4; Mt 1:3

of the seed.

1Sa 2:20

A.M. 2697. B.C. 1307. An. Ex. Is. 184. Boaz.


the Lord.

12; Ge 20:17,18; 21:1-3; 25:21; 29:31; 30:2,22,23; 33:5; 1Sa 1:27

2:5; Ps 113:9; 127:3

the women.

Lu 1:58; Ro 12:15; 1Co 12:26


Ge 29:35; Ps 34:1-3; 103:1,2; 1Th 5:18; 2Th 1:3

which hath.

Ge 24:27

left thee. Heb. caused to cease unto thee. kinsman, or,redeemer. that his.

21,22; Ge 12:2; Isa 11:1-4; Mt 1:5-20

a nourisher, etc. Heb. to nourish thy grey hairs.

Ge 45:11; 47:12; Ps 55:22; Isa 46:4

for thy.



1Sa 1:8; Pr 18:24


the women.

Lu 1:58-63

Obed.That is, [douleuon,] serving, or a servant, as Josephus interprets it.



1Ch 2:4-8; 4:1; Mt 1:3; Lu 3:33

Phares, Esrom.

begat Ram.

1Ch 2:9,10; Mt 1:4; Lu 3:33

Aram, Aminadab.


Nu 1:7; Mt 1:4; Lu 3:32

Naasson. Salmon. or, Samlah.


1Ch 2:11


Mt 1:5; Lu 3:32

and Boaz.

1Ch 2:12; Mt 1:5; Lu 3:32



1Sa 16:1; Isa 11:1


1Ch 2:15; Mt 1:6; Lu 3:31 CONCLUDING REMARKS ON THE BOOK OF RUTH. This book is evidently a supplement to the book of Judges, and an introduction to that of Samuel, between which it is placed with great propriety. In the ancient Jewish canon, it formed a part of the book of Judges; but the modern Jews make it one of the five Megilloth, which they place towards the end of the Old Testament. This book has been attributed to various authors; but the best founded and generally received opinion, and in which the Jews coincide, is that which ascribes it to the prophet Samuel; before whose time it could not have been written, as is evident from the genealogy recorded in ch. 4:17-22. The time in which the events detailed in this book happened is involved in much obscurity and uncertainty. Augustine refers it to the time of the regal government of the Hebrews; Josephus to the administration of Eli; Moldenhawer, after some Jewish writers, to the time of Ehud; Rabbi Kimichi, and other Jewish authors, to the time of Ibzan; Bps. Patrick and Horne to the judicature of Gideon; Lightfoot to the period between Ehud and Deborah; and Usher, who is followed by most chronologers, to the time of Shamgar. The authenticity and canonical authority of this sacred book cannot be questioned; and the Evangelists, in describing our Saviour's descent, have followed its genealogical accounts. To delineate part of this genealogy appears to be the principal design of the book; it had been foretold that the Messiah should be of the tribe of Judah, and it was afterwards revealed that he should be of the family of David; and therefore it was necessary, to prevent the least suspicion of fraud or design, that the history of that family should be written before these prophecies were revealed. And thus this book, these prophecies, and their accomplishment, serve mutually to illustrate each other. The whole narrative is extremely interesting and instructive, and is written with the most beautiful simplicity. The distress of Naomi; her affectionate concern for her daughter-in-law; the reluctant departure of Orpah; the dutiful attachment of Ruth; and the sorrowful return to Bethlehem, are very beautifully told. The simplicity of manners, likewise, which is shown in the account of Ruth's industry and attention to Naomi; of the elegant charity of Boaz; and of his acknowledgement of his kindred with Ruth, afford a very pleasing contrast to the turbulent scenes described in the preceding book. And while it exhibits, in a striking and affecting manner, the care of Divine Providence over those who sincerely fear God, and honestly aim at fulfilling his will, the circumstance of a Moabitess becoming an ancestor of the Messiah seems to have been a pre-intimation of the admission of the Gentiles into his church. It must be remarked, that in the estimation of the Jews, it was disgraceful to David to have derived his birth from a Moabitess; and Shimei, in his revilings against him, is supposed by them to have tauntingly reflected on his descent from Ruth. This book, therefore, contains an intrinsic proof of its own verity, as it reveals a circumstance so little flattering to the sovereign of Israel; and it is scarcely necessary to appeal to its admission into the canon of Scripture, for a testimony of its authentic character. Add to which, that the native, the amiable simplicity in which the story is told, is sufficient proof of its genuineness. There are several sympathetic circumstances recorded which no forger could have invented: there is too much of nature to admit any thing of art.
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