1 Samuel 13

Saul Fights the Philistines

1Saul lived for one year and then became king, and when he had reigned for two years over Israel
Hebrew Saul was one year old when he became king, and he reigned two years over Israel (see 1 Samuel 10:6); some Greek manuscripts give Saul’s age when he began to reign as thirty years
2Saul chose three thousand men of Israel. Two thousand were with Saul in b  Michmash and the hill country of Bethel, and a thousand were with Jonathan in c  Gibeah of Benjamin. The rest of the people he sent home, every man to his tent. 3Jonathan defeated d  the garrison of the Philistines that was e  at Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul f  blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, “Let the Hebrews hear.” 4And all Israel heard it said that Saul had defeated the garrison of the Philistines, and also that Israel had become a stench to the Philistines. And the people were called out to join Saul at Gilgal.

5And the Philistines mustered to fight with Israel, thirty thousand chariots and six thousand horsemen and troops g  like the sand on the seashore in multitude. They came up and encamped in Michmash, to the east of h  Beth-aven. 6When the men of Israel saw that they were in trouble (for the people were hard pressed), the people hid themselves i  in caves and in holes and in rocks and in tombs and in cisterns, 7and some Hebrews crossed the fords of the Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead. Saul was still at Gilgal, and all the people followed him trembling.

Saul’s Unlawful Sacrifice

8 j  He waited seven days, the time appointed by Samuel. But Samuel did not come to Gilgal, and the people were scattering from him. 9So Saul said, “Bring the burnt offering here to me, and the peace offerings.” And he offered the burnt offering. 10As soon as he had finished offering the burnt offering, behold, Samuel came. And Saul went out to meet him and greet him. 11Samuel said, “What have you done?” And Saul said, “When I saw that the people were scattering from me, and that you did not come within the days appointed, and that the Philistines had mustered at Michmash, 12I said, ‘Now the Philistines will come down against me at Gilgal, and I have not sought the favor of the  Lord.’ So I forced myself, and offered the burnt offering.” 13And Samuel said to Saul, k  “You have done foolishly. l  You have not kept the command of the  Lord your God, with which he commanded you. For then the  Lord would have established your kingdom over Israel forever. 14But now m  your kingdom shall not continue. The  Lord has sought out a man n  after his own heart, and the  Lord has commanded him to be prince
Or leader
over his people, because you have not kept what the  Lord commanded you.”
15And Samuel arose and went up from Gilgal. The rest of the people went up after Saul to meet the army; they went up from Gilgal
Septuagint; Hebrew lacks  The rest of the people . . . from Gilgal
to q  Gibeah of Benjamin.

And Saul numbered the people who were present with him, r  about six hundred men.
16And Saul and Jonathan his son and the people who were present with them stayed in s  Geba of Benjamin, but the Philistines encamped in Michmash. 17And t  raiders came out of the camp of the Philistines in three companies. One company turned toward Ophrah, to the land of Shual; 18another company turned toward u  Beth-horon; and another company turned toward the border that looks down on the Valley of v  Zeboim toward the wilderness.

19 w  Now there was no blacksmith to be found throughout all the land of Israel, for the Philistines said, “Lest the Hebrews make themselves swords or spears.” 20But every one of the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen his plowshare, his mattock, his axe, or his sickle,
Septuagint; Hebrew plowshare
21and the charge was two-thirds of a shekel
Hebrew  was a pim
for the plowshares and for the mattocks, and a third of a shekel
A  shekel was about 2/5 ounce or 11 grams
for sharpening the axes and for setting the goads.
The meaning of the Hebrew verse is uncertain
22So on the day of the battle ab  there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people with Saul and Jonathan, but Saul and Jonathan his son had them. 23And ac  the garrison of the Philistines went out to the ad  pass of ae  Michmash.

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