Exodus 28

The Priestly Garments

1“Have your brother Aaron, with his sons, come to you from the Israelites to serve Me as priest – Aaron, his sons Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. a 2 Make holy garments b for your brother Aaron, for glory and beauty. 3 You are to instruct all the skilled craftsmen,
Lit all wise of heart
d whom I have filled with a spirit of wisdom, to make Aaron’s garments for consecrating him to serve Me as priest.
4 These are the garments that they must make: a breastpiece, an
ephod: A vestlike garment, extending below the waist and worn under the breastpiece, which was used by both the priests and the high priest
ephod, a robe, a specially woven tunic,
Hb obscure
a turban, and a sash. They are to make holy garments for your brother Aaron and his sons so that they may serve Me as priests.
5 They should use
Lit receive
gold; blue, purple, and scarlet yarn; and fine linen.

The Ephod

6 “They h are to make the ephod of finely spun linen embroidered with gold, and with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn. 7It must have two shoulder pieces attached to its two edges so that it can be joined together. 8The artistically woven waistband that is on the ephod
Lit waistband of its ephod, which is on it
must be of one piece,
Lit piece with the ephod
according to the same workmanship of gold, of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and of finely spun linen.

9 “Take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of Israel’s sons: 10 six of their names on the first stone and the remaining six names on the second stone, in the order of their birth. 11 Engrave the two stones with the names of Israel’s sons as a gem cutter engraves a seal. Mount them, surrounded with gold filigree settings. 12 Fasten both stones on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as memorial stones for the Israelites. Aaron will carry their names on his two shoulders before the Lord as a reminder. k 13 Fashion gold filigree settings 14and two chains of pure gold; you will make them of braided cord work, and attach the cord chains to the settings.

The Breastpiece

15 “You l are to make an embroidered breastpiece for making decisions.
Used for determining God’s will; Nm 27:21
Make it with the same workmanship as the ephod; make it of gold, of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and of finely spun linen.
16It must be square and folded double, nine inches long and nine inches wide.
Lit a span its length and a span its width
17 Place a setting of gemstones
Many of these stones cannot be identified with certainty.
on it, four rows of stones:

The first row should be
a row of carnelian, topaz, and emerald;
Or beryl

18 the second row,
a turquoise,
Or malachite, or garnet
a sapphire,
Or lapis lazuli
and a diamond;
Hb obscure; LXX, Vg read jasper

19 the third row,
a jacinth,
Hb obscure
an agate, and an amethyst;
20 and the fourth row,
a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper.

They should be adorned with gold filigree in their settings.
21The 12 stones are to correspond to the names of Israel’s sons. Each stone must be engraved like a seal, with one of the names of the 12 tribes.

22“You are to make braided chains
The same chains mentioned in v. 14
of pure gold cord work for the breastpiece.
23 Fashion two gold rings for the breastpiece and attach them to its two corners. 24Then attach the two gold cords to the two gold rings at the corners of the breastpiece. 25 Attach the other ends of the two cords to the two filigree settings, and in this way attach them to the ephod’s shoulder pieces in the front. 26 Make two other gold rings and put them at the two other corners of the breastpiece on the edge that is next to the inner border of the ephod. 27 Make two more gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the ephod’s two shoulder pieces on its front, close to its seam,
The place where the shoulder pieces join the front of the ephod
and above the ephod’s woven waistband.
28The craftsmen are to tie the breastpiece from its rings to the rings of the ephod with a cord of blue yarn, so that the breastpiece is above the ephod’s waistband and does not come loose from the ephod.

29“Whenever he enters the sanctuary, Aaron is to carry the names of Israel’s sons over his heart on the breastpiece for decisions, as a continual reminder before the Lord. 30 Place the
Urim & Thummim: Two objects used by Israelite priests to determine God's will
Urim and Thummim x in the breastpiece for decisions, so that they will also be over Aaron’s heart whenever he comes before the Lord. Aaron will continually carry the means of decisions for the Israelites over his heart before the Lord.

The Robe

31 “You y are to make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue yarn. 32There should be an opening at its top in the center of it. Around the opening, there should be a woven collar with an opening like that of body armor
Hb obscure
so that it does not tear.
33 Make pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn
Sam, LXX add of finely spun linen
on its lower hem and all around it. Put gold bells between them all the way around,
34so that gold bells and pomegranates alternate around the lower hem of the robe. 35The robe must be worn by Aaron whenever he ministers, and its sound will be heard when he enters the sanctuary before the Lord and when he exits, so that he does not die.

The Turban

36 “You are to make a pure gold medallion and engrave it, like the engraving of a seal: ab HOLY TO THE LORD.

37 Fasten it to a cord of blue yarn so it can be placed on the turban; the medallion is to be on the front of the turban. 38It will be on Aaron’s forehead so that Aaron may bear the
guilt/guilty: The liability to be punished for a fault, a sin, an act, or an omission unless there is forgiveness or atonement; the term normally concerns an objective fact, not a subjective feeling.
guilt ad connected with the holy offerings that the Israelites consecrate as all their holy gifts. It is always to be on his forehead, so that they may find acceptance with the Lord.

Other Priestly Garments

39 “You are to weave the tunic from fine linen, make a turban of fine linen, and make an embroidered sash. 40 Make tunics, sashes, and headbands for Aaron’s sons to give them glory and beauty. ae 41Put these on your brother Aaron and his sons; then anoint, af ordain,
Lit anoint them, fill their hand
and consecrate ah them, so that they may serve Me as priests.
42 Make them linen undergarments ai to cover their naked bodies; they must extend from the waist
Lit loins
to the thighs.
43These must be worn by Aaron and his sons whenever they enter the tent of meeting or approach the altar to minister in the sanctuary area, so that they do not incur guilt ak and die. This is to be a permanent statute al for Aaron and for his future descendants.
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