Romans 16

Paul’s Commendation of Phoebe

1I commend to you a our sister Phoebe, who is a servant
Others interpret this term in a technical sense: deacon, or deaconess, or minister, or courier
of the church in Cenchreae. c
2 So you should welcome her in the Lord d in a manner worthy of the
saint(s)/sanctification/sanctify/sanctified: The work of the Holy Spirit that separates believers in Jesus from the world; at the time of saving faith in Jesus, the believer is made a saint; therefore, all believers are saints. The believer participates with the Spirit in a process of transformation that continues until glorification. The goal of sanctification is progressive conformity to the image of Jesus Christ.
saints and assist her in whatever matter she may require your help. For indeed she has been a benefactor of many – and of me also.

Greeting to Roman Christians

3 Give my greetings to Prisca
Traditionally, Priscilla, as in Ac 18:2,18,26
and Aquila, g my coworkers in h Christ Jesus, i
4 who risked their own necks for my life. Not only do I thank them, but so do all the Gentile churches.
5 Greet also the church that meets in their home. j
Greet my dear friend Epaenetus, who is the first convert
Lit the firstfruits
l to Christ from
Asia: A Roman province that is now part of modern Turkey; it did not refer to the modern continent of Asia.
Other mss read Achaia
6 Greet Mary,
Or Maria
who has worked very hard for you.
Other mss read us

7 Greet Andronicus and Junia,
Either a feminine name or “Junias,” a masculine name
my fellow countrymen s and fellow prisoners. t They are noteworthy in the eyes of the apostles,
Or are outstanding among
“The apostles” is not always a technical term referring to the 12; cp. 2Co 8:23; Php 2:25 where this word is translated as “messenger.”
and they were also in Christ before me.
8 Greet Ampliatus, my dear friend in the Lord.
9 Greet Urbanus, our coworker in Christ, and my dear friend Stachys.
10 Greet Apelles, who is approved in Christ.
Greet those who belong to the household of Aristobulus. w
11 Greet Herodion, my fellow countryman.
Greet those who belong to the household of Narcissus who are in the Lord.
12 Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who have worked hard in the Lord.
Greet my dear friend Persis, who has worked very hard in the Lord.
13 Greet Rufus, x chosen in the Lord; also his mother – and mine.
14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the
brother(s): The Greek word adelphoi can be used as a reference to males only or to groups that include males and females. It is the context of each usage that determines the proper meaning.
brothers who are with them.
15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. z
16 Greet one another with a holy kiss. aa
All the churches of Christ send you greetings.

Warning against Divisive People

17 Now I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause dissensions and obstacles contrary to the doctrine you have learned. ab Avoid them, ac 18 for such people do not serve our Lord Christ ad but their own appetites.
Lit belly
af They deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting with smooth talk and flattering words. ag

Paul’s Gracious Conclusion

19 The report of your obedience has reached everyone. ah Therefore I rejoice over you. But I want you to be wise about what is good, yet innocent about what is evil. ai 20 The God of peace aj will soon crush Satan ak under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you. al

21 Timothy, am my coworker, and Lucius, an Jason, ao and Sosipater, ap my fellow countrymen, greet you.

22 I Tertius, who wrote this letter, aq greet you in the Lord.
Or letter in the Lord, greet you

23 Gaius, as who is host to me and to the whole church, greets you. Erastus, at the city treasurer, and our brother Quartus greet you.[ 24The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all.]
Other mss omit bracketed text; cp. v. 20

Glory to God

25 Now to Him who has power to strengthen you av according to my gospel and the proclamation about Jesus Christ, aw according to the revelation of the
Mystery: Transliteration of the Greek word mysterion; a secret hidden in the past but now revealed
mystery kept silent ay for long ages az
26 but now revealed and made known through the prophetic Scriptures, ba according to the command of the eternal God to advance the obedience of faith
Or the obedience that is faith, or the faithful obedience, or the obedience that comes from faith; Rm 1:5
bc among all nations
27to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ – to Him be the glory forever!
Other mss have these vv. at the end of chap 14 or 15.
Amen: The transliteration of a Hebrew word signifying that something is certain, valid, truthful, or faithful; it is often used at the end of biblical songs, hymns, and prayers.
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