Hebrews 5

1For every high priest is taken from among the people
Grk “from among men,” but since the point in context is shared humanity (rather than shared maleness), the plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrōpōn) has been translated “people.”
and appointed
Grk “who is taken from among people is appointed.”
to represent them before God,
Grk “appointed on behalf of people in reference to things relating to God.”
to offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins.
2He is able to deal compassionately with those who are ignorant and erring, since he also is subject to weakness, 3and for this reason he is obligated to make sin offerings for himself as well as for the people. 4And no one assumes this honor
Honor refers here to the honor of the high priesthood.
on his own initiative,
Grk “by himself, on his own.”
but only when called to it by God,
Grk “being called by God.”
as in fact Aaron was.
5So also Christ did not glorify himself in becoming high priest, but the one who glorified him was God,
Grk “the one”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
who said to him, “ You are my Son! Today I have fathered you ,”
Grk “I have begotten you”; see Heb 1:5.
A quotation from Ps 2:7.
6as also in another place God
Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
says, “ You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek .”
A quotation from Ps 110:4.
7During his earthly life
Grk “in the days of his flesh.”
Grk “he”; the referent (Christ) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
Grk “who…having offered,” continuing the description of Christ from Heb 5:5–6.
both requests and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to the one who was able to save him from death and he was heard because of his devotion.
8Although he was a son, he learned obedience through the things he suffered.
There is a wordplay in the Greek text between the verbs “learned” (ἔμαθεν, emathen) and “suffered” (ἔπαθεν, epathen).
9And by being perfected in this way, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 10and he was designated
Grk “having been designated,” continuing the thought of Heb 5:9.
by God as high priest in the order of Melchizedek .
The phrase in the order of Melchizedek picks up the quotation from Ps 110:4 in Heb 5:6.

The Need to Move on to Maturity

11 On this topic we have much to say
Grk “concerning which the message for us is great.”
and it is difficult to explain, since you have become sluggish
Or “dull.”
in hearing.
12For though you should in fact be teachers by this time,
Grk “because of the time.”
you need someone to teach you the beginning elements of God’s utterances.
Grk “the elements of the beginning of the oracles of God.”
You have gone back to needing
Grk “you have come to have a need for.”
milk, not
‡ Most texts, including some early and important ones (א2 A B* D Ψ 0122 0278 1881 Maj. sy Cl), have καί (kai, “and”) immediately preceding οὐ (ou, “not”), but other equally significant witnesses (Ƥ46 א* B2 C 33 81 1739 lat Or Did) lack the conjunction. As it was a natural tendency for scribes to add a coordinating conjunction, the καί appears to be a motivated reading. On balance, it is probably best to regard the shorter reading as authentic. NA27 has καί in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
solid food.
13For everyone who lives on milk is inexperienced in the message of righteousness, because he is an infant. 14But solid food is for the mature, whose perceptions are trained by practice to discern both good and evil.

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