The Lord, not Idols, is the Only Worthy Object of Worship1You people of Israel, ▼
▼ Heb “house of Israel.”listen to what the Lord has to say to you.
2 The Lord says,
“Do not start following pagan religious practices. ▼
Do not be in awe of signs that occur ▼
▼ Heb “signs.” The words “that occur” are supplied in the translation for clarity.▼
▼ The Hebrew word translated here “things that go on in the sky” (אֹתוֹת, ’otot) refers both to unusual disturbances such as eclipses, comets, meteors, etc., but also to such things as the changes in the position of the sun, moon, and stars in conjunction with the changes in seasons (cf. Gen 1:14). The people of Assyria and Babylonia worshiped the sun, moon, and stars, thinking that these heavenly bodies had some hold over them.in the sky
even though the nations hold them in awe.
3 For the religion ▼ of these people is worthless.
They cut down a tree in the forest,
and a craftsman makes it into an idol with his tools. ▼
▼ This passage is dripping with sarcasm. It begins by talking about the “statutes” of the pagan peoples as a “vapor” using a singular copula and singular predicate. Then it suppresses the subject, the idol, as though it were too horrible to mention, using only the predications about it. The last two lines read literally: “[it is] a tree which one cuts down from the forest; the work of the hands of a craftsman with his chisel.”
4 He decorates it with overlays of silver and gold.
He uses hammer and nails to fasten it ▼
▼ The pronoun is plural in Hebrew, referring to the parts.together
so that it will not fall over.
5 Such idols are like scarecrows in a cucumber field.
They cannot talk.
They must be carried
because they cannot walk.
Do not be afraid of them
because they cannot hurt you.
And they do not have any power to help you.” ▼
▼ Heb “And it is not in them to do good either.”
6 I said, ▼
▼ The words “I said” are not in the Hebrew text, but there appears to be a shift in speaker. Someone is now addressing the Lord. The likely speaker is Jeremiah, so the words “I said” are supplied in the translation for clarity.
“There is no one like you, Lord. ▼
▼ The form that introduces this line has raised debate. The form מֵאֵין (me’en) normally means “without” and introduces a qualification of a term expressing desolation or “so that not” and introduces a negative result (cf. BDB 35 s.v. II אַיִן 6.b). Neither of these nuances fit either this verse or the occurrence in v. 7. BDB 35 s.v. II אַיִן 6.b.γ notes that some have explained this as a strengthened form of אַיִן (’ayin) which occurs in a similar phrase five other times (cf., e.g., 1 Kgs 8:23). Though many including BDB question the validity of this solution it is probably better than the suggestion that BDB gives of repointing to מֵאַיִן (me’ayin, “whence”), which scarcely fits the context of v. 7, or the solution of HALOT 41 s.v. I אַיִן, which suggests that the מ (mem) is a double writing (dittograph) of the final consonant from the preceding word. That would assume that the scribe made the same error twice or was influenced the second time by the first erroneous writing.
You are great.
And you are renowned for your power. ▼
▼ Heb “Great is your name in power.”
7 Everyone should revere you, O King of all nations, ▼
▼ Heb “Who should not revere you…?” The question is rhetorical and expects a negative answer.
because you deserve to be revered. ▼
▼ Heb “For it is fitting to you.”
For there is no one like you
among any of the wise people of the nations nor among any of their kings. ▼
▼ Heb “their royalty/dominion.” This is a case of substitution of the abstract for the concrete “royalty, royal power” for “kings” who exercise it.
8 The people of those nations ▼
▼ Or “Those wise people and kings are…” It is unclear whether the subject is the “they” of the nations in the preceding verse, or the wise people and kings referred to. The text merely has “they.”are both stupid and foolish.
Instruction from a wooden idol is worthless! ▼
▼ Heb “The instruction of vanities [worthless idols] is wood.” The meaning of this line is a little uncertain. Various proposals have been made to make sense, most of which involve radical emendation of the text. For some examples see J. A. Thompson, Jeremiah (NICOT), 323–24, fn 6. However, this is probably a case of the bold predication that discussed in GKC 452 #141.d, some examples of which may be seen in Ps 109:4 “I am prayer,” and Ps 120:7 “I am peace.”
9 Hammered-out silver is brought from Tarshish ▼
▼ Two Qumran scrolls of Jeremiah (4QJera and 4QJerb) reflect a Hebrew text that is very different than the traditional MT from which modern Bibles have been translated. The Hebrew text in these two manuscripts is similar to that from which LXX was translated. This is true both in small details and in major aspects where the LXX differs from MT. Most notably, 4QJera, 4QJerb and LXX present a version of Jeremiah about 13% shorter than the longer version found in MT. One example of this shorter text is Jer 10:3–11 in which MT and 4QJera both have all nine verses, while LXX and 4QJerb both lack vv. 6–8 and 10, which extol the greatness of God. In addition, the latter part of v. 9 is arranged differently in LXX and 4QJerb. The translation here follows MT which is supported by 4QJera.
and gold is brought from Uphaz ▼ to cover those idols. ▼
▼ The words “to cover those idols” are not in the text but are implicit from the context. They are supplied in the translation for clarity.
They are the handiwork of carpenters and goldsmiths. ▼
▼ The words “They are” are not in the text. The text reads merely, “the work of the carpenter and of the hands of the goldsmith.” The words are supplied in the translation for clarity.
They are clothed in blue and purple clothes. ▼
▼ Heb “Blue and purple their clothing.”
They are all made by skillful workers. ▼
10 The Lord is the only true God.
He is the living God and the everlasting King.
When he shows his anger the earth shakes.
None of the nations can stand up to his fury.
11 You people of Israel should tell those nations this:
‘These gods did not make heaven and earth.
They will disappear ▼
▼ Aram “The gods who did not make…earth will disappear…” The sentence is broken up in the translation to avoid a long, complex English sentence in conformity with contemporary English style.from the earth and from under the heavens.’ ▼
▼ This verse is in Aramaic. It is the only Aramaic sentence in Jeremiah. Scholars debate the appropriateness of this verse to this context. Many see it as a gloss added by a postexilic scribe which was later incorporated into the text. Both R. E. Clendenen (“Discourse Strategies in Jeremiah 10, ” JBL 106 : 401-8) and W. L. Holladay (Jeremiah [Hermeneia], 1:324–25, 334–35) have given detailed arguments that the passage is not only original but the climax and center of the contrast between the Lord and idols in vv. 2–16. Holladay shows that the passage is a very carefully constructed chiasm (see accompanying study note) which argues that “these” at the end is the subject of the verb “will disappear” not the attributive adjective modifying heaven. He also makes a very good case that the verse is poetry and not prose as it is rendered in the majority of modern English versions.▼
▼ This passage is carefully structured and placed to contrast the Lord who is living and eternal (v. 10) and made the heavens and earth (v. 12) with the idols who did not and will disappear. It also has a very careful concentric structure in the original text where “the gods” is balanced by “these,” “heavens” is balance by “from under the heavens,” “the earth” is balanced by “from the earth,” and “did not make” is balanced and contrasted in the very center by “will disappear.” The structure is further reinforced by the sound play/wordplay between “did not make” (Aram לָא עֲבַדוּ [la’ ’avadu]) and “will disappear” (Aram יֵאבַדוּ [ye’vadu]). This is the rhetorical climax of Jeremiah’s sarcastic attack on the folly of idolatry.
12 The Lord is the one who ▼
▼ The words “The Lord is” are not in the text. They are implicit from the context. They are supplied in the translation here because of the possible confusion of who the subject is due to the parenthetical address to the people of Israel in v. 11. The first two verbs are participles and should not merely be translated as the narrative past. They are predicate nominatives of an implied copula intending to contrast the Lord as the one who made the earth with the idols which did not.by his power made the earth.
He is the one who by his wisdom established the world.
And by his understanding he spread out the skies.
13 When his voice thunders, ▼
▼ Heb “At the voice of his giving.” The idiom “to give the voice” is often used for thunder (cf. BDB 679 s.v. נָתַן Qal.1.x).the heavenly ocean roars.
He makes the clouds rise from the far-off horizons. ▼
▼ Heb “from the ends of the earth.”
He makes the lightning flash out in the midst of the rain.
He unleashes the wind from the places where he stores it. ▼
▼ Heb “he brings out the winds from his storehouses.”
14 All these idolaters ▼
▼ Heb “Every man.” But in the context this is not a reference to all people without exception but to all idolaters. The referent is made explicit for the sake of clarity.will prove to be stupid and ignorant.
Every goldsmith will be disgraced by the idol he made.
For the image he forges is merely a sham. ▼
▼ Or “nothing but a phony god”; Heb “a lie/falsehood.”
There is no breath in any of those idols. ▼
▼ Heb “There is no breath in them.” The referent is made explicit so that no one will mistakenly take it to refer to the idolaters or goldsmiths.
15 They are worthless, mere objects to be mocked. ▼
▼ Or “objects of mockery.”
When the time comes to punish them, they will be destroyed.
16 The Lord, who is the inheritance ▼
▼ The words “The Lord who is” are not in the text. They are supplied in the translation for clarity. For the significance of the words that follow them see the study note that follows.▼
▼ The phrase the portion of Jacob’s descendants, which is applied to God here, has its background in the division of the land where each tribe received a portion of the land of Palestine except the tribe of Levi whose “portion” was the Lord. As the other tribes lived off what their portion of the land provided, the tribe of Levi lived off what the Lord provided, i.e., the tithes and offerings dedicated to him. Hence to have the Lord as one’s portion is to have him provide for all one’s needs (see Ps 16:5 in the context of vv. 2, 6 and Lam 3:24 in the context of vv. 22–23).of Jacob’s descendants, ▼
▼ Heb “The Portion of Jacob.” “Descendants” is implied, and is supplied in the translation for clarity.is not like them.
He is the one who created everything.
And the people of Israel are those he claims as his own. ▼
▼ Heb “And Israel is the tribe of his possession.”
He is known as the Lord who rules over all.” ▼
▼ Heb “Yahweh of armies is his name.”▼
Jeremiah Laments for and Prays for the Soon-to-be-Judged People17 Gather your belongings together and prepare to leave the land,
you people of Jerusalem ▼ who are being besieged. ▼
▼ Heb “you who are living in/under siege.” The pronouns in this verse are feminine singular in Hebrew. Jerusalem is being personified as a single woman. This personification carries on down through v. 19 where she speaks in the first person. It is difficult, however, to reflect this in a translation that conveys any meaning without being somewhat paraphrastic like this.
18 For the Lord says, “I will now throw out
those who live in this land.
I will bring so much trouble on them
that they will actually feel it.” ▼
▼ The meaning of this last line is somewhat uncertain: Heb “I will cause them distress in order that [or with the result that] they will find.” The absence of an object for the verb “find” has led to conjecture that the text is wrong. Some commentators follow the lead of the Greek and Latin versions which read the verb as a passive: “they will be found,” i.e., be caught and captured. Others follow a suggestion by G. R. Driver (“Linguistic and Textual Problems: Jeremiah,” JQR 28 [1937-38]: 107) that the verb be read not as “they will find” (יִמְצָאוּ [yimtsa’u] from מָצָא [matsa’]) but “they will be squeezed/ drained” (יִמְצוּ [yimtsu] from מָצָה [matsah]). The translation adopted assumes that this is an example of the ellipsis of the object supplied from the context (cf. E. W. Bullinger, Figures of Speech, 8–12). For a similar nuance for the verb “find” = “feel/experience” see BDB 592 s.v. מָצָא Qal.1.f and compare the usage in Ps 116:3.
19 And I cried out, ▼
▼ The words, “And I cried out” are not in the text. It is not altogether clear who the speaker is in vv. 19–25. The words of vv. 19–20 would best be assigned to a personified Jerusalem who laments the destruction of her city (under the figure of a tent) and the exile of her children (under the figure of children). However, the words of v. 21 which assign responsibility to the rulers do not fit well in the mouth of the people but do fit Jeremiah. The words of v. 22 are very appropriate to Jeremiah being similar to the report in 4:19–20. Likewise the words of v. 23 which appear to express man’s incapacity to control his own destiny and his resignation to the fate which awaits him in the light of v. 24 seem more appropriate to Jeremiah than to the people. There has been no indication elsewhere that the people have shown any indication of being resigned to their fate or willing to accept their punishment. Though the issue is far from resolved a majority of commentators see Jeremiah as the speaker so identifying himself with their fate that he speaks as though he were this personified figure. It is not altogether out of the question, however, that the speaker throughout is personified Jerusalem though I know of no commentator who takes that view. For those who are interested, the most thorough discussion of the issue is probably to be found in W. McKane, Jeremiah (ICC), 1:230–35, especially 233–35. Rendering the pronouns throughout as “we” and “our” alleviates some of the difficulty but some speaker needs to be identified in the introduction to allay any possible confusion. Hence I have opted for what is the majority view.“We are doomed! ▼
▼ Heb “Woe to me on account of my wound.” The words “woe to” in many contexts carry the connotation of hopelessness and of inevitable doom (cf. 1 Sam 4:7, 8; Isa 6:5), hence a “deadly blow.” See also the usage in 4:13, 31; 6:4 and the notes on 4:13. For the rendering of the pronoun as “we” and “our” here and in the verses to follow see the preceding note.
Our wound is severe!
We once thought, ‘This is only an illness.
And we will be able to bear it!’ ▼
▼ Some interpret this as a resignation to the punishment inflicted and translate “But I said, ‘This is my punishment and I will just need to bear it.’” This is unlikely given the meaning and usage of the word rendered “sickness” (חֳלִי, khali), the absence of the pronoun “my,” and the likelihood that the particle אַךְ means “only” not “indeed” (cf. BDB s.v. אַךְ 2.b and compare its usage in v. 24).▼
20 But our tents have been destroyed.
The ropes that held them in place have been ripped apart. ▼
Our children are gone and are not coming back. ▼
▼ Heb “my children have gone from me and are no more.”▼
▼ What is being referred to is the exile of the people of the land. This passage could refer to the exiles of 605 b.c., 597 b.c., or more probably be anticipatory of the exile of 588 b.c. since the “tent,” (i.e., the city) is pictured as torn down. The picture of devastation and desolation here should be contrasted with that in Isa 54:2–3.
There is no survivor to put our tents back up,
no one left to hang their tent curtains in place.
21 For our leaders ▼
▼ Heb “the shepherds.”are stupid.
They have not sought the Lord’s advice. ▼
▼ Heb “They have not sought the Lord.”▼
So they do not act wisely,
and the people they are responsible for ▼
▼ Heb “all their flock (or “pasturage”).”▼ have all been scattered.
22 Listen! News is coming even now. ▼
▼ Heb “The sound of a report, behold, it is coming.”
The rumble of a great army is heard approaching ▼
▼ Heb “ coming, even a great quaking.”from a land in the north. ▼
It is coming to turn the towns of Judah into rubble,
places where only jackals live.
23 Lord, we know that people do not control their own destiny. ▼
▼ Heb “Not to the man his way.” For the nuance of “fate, destiny, or the way things turn out” for the Hebrew word “way” see Hag 1:5, Isa 40:27 and probably Ps 49:13 (cf. KBL 218 s.v. דֶּרֶךְ 5). For the idea of “control” or “hold in one’s power” for the preposition “to” see Ps 3:8 (cf. BDB 513 s.v. לְ 5.b[a]).
It is not in their power to determine what will happen to them. ▼
▼ Heb “Not to a man the walking and the establishing his step.”
24 Correct us, Lord, but only in due measure. ▼
▼ Heb “with justice.”
Do not punish us in anger or you will reduce us to nothing. ▼
▼ The words, “to almost nothing” are not in the text. They are implicit from the general context and are supplied by almost all English versions.
25 Vent your anger on the nations that do not acknowledge you. ▼
Vent it on the peoples ▼
▼ Heb “tribes/clans.”who do not worship you. ▼
▼ Heb “who do not call on your name.” The idiom “to call on your name” (directed to God) refers to prayer (mainly) and praise. See 1 Kgs 18:24–26 and Ps 116:13, 17. Here “calling on your name” is parallel to “acknowledging you.” In many locations in the OT “name” is equivalent to the person. In the OT, the “name” reflected the person’s character (cf. Gen 27:36; 1 Sam 25:25) or his reputation (Gen 11:4; 2 Sam 8:13). To speak in a person’s name was to act as his representative or carry his authority (1 Sam 25:9; 1 Kgs 21:8). To call someone’s name over something was to claim it for one’s own (2 Sam 12:28).
For they have destroyed the people of Jacob. ▼
▼ Heb “have devoured Jacob.”
They have completely destroyed them ▼
and left their homeland in utter ruin.
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