Joshua 12

Now these are the kings of the land whom the Israelites defeated and drove from their land
Heb “and took possession of their land.”
on the east side of the Jordan,
Heb “beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.”
from the Arnon Valley to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern Arabah:

King Sihon of the Amorites who lived
Or perhaps, “reigned.”
in Heshbon and ruled from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley) – including the city in the middle of the valley
The MT reads here, “and the middle of the valley,” but the reading “the city in the middle of valley” can be reconstructed on the basis of Josh 13:9, 16.
and half of Gilead – all the way to the Jabbok Valley bordering Ammonite territory.
His kingdom included
The words “his kingdom included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
the eastern Arabah from the Sea of Kinnereth
The Sea of Kinnereth is another name for the Sea of Galilee. See the note on the word “Kinnereth” in 11:2.
to the Sea of the Arabah (the Salt Sea),
The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea.
including the route to Beth Jeshimoth and the area southward below the slopes of Pisgah.

The territory of King Og of Bashan, one of the few remaining Rephaites,
Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”
The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10–11, 20; 3:11.
who lived
Or perhaps “who reigned.”
in Ashtaroth and Edrei
and ruled over Mount Hermon, Salecah, all of Bashan to the border of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and half of Gilead as far as the border of King Sihon of Heshbon.

Moses the Lord’s servant and the Israelites defeated them and Moses the Lord’s servant assigned their land
Heb “gave it for a possession.”
to Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh.

These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley to Mount Halak on up to Seir. Joshua assigned this territory to the Israelite tribes,
Heb “Joshua gave it to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their allotted portions.”
including the hill country, the lowlands,
Or “the foothills”; Heb “the Shephelah.”
the Arabah, the slopes, the wilderness, and the Negev – the land of
The words “the land of” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites:

the king of Jericho
For location see Map5-B2; Map6-E1; Map7-E1; Map8-E3; Map10-A2; Map11-A1.
the king of Ai – located near Bethel – (one),
10  the king of Jerusalem (one),
the king of Hebron (one),
11  the king of Jarmuth (one),
the king of Lachish (one),
12  the king of Eglon (one),
the king of Gezer (one),
13  the king of Debir (one),
the king of Geder (one),
14  the king of Hormah (one),
the king of Arad (one),
15  the king of Libnah (one),
the king of Adullam (one),
16  the king of Makkedah (one),
the king of Bethel
For location see Map4-G4; Map5-C1; Map6-E3; Map7-D1; Map8-G3.
17  the king of Tappuah (one),
the king of Hepher (one),
18  the king of Aphek (one),
the king of Lasharon (one),
19  the king of Madon (one),
the king of Hazor
For location see Map1-D2; Map2-D3; Map3-A2; Map4-C1.
20  the king of Shimron Meron (one),
the king of Acshaph (one),
21  the king of Taanach (one),
the king of Megiddo
For location see Map1-D4; Map2-C1; Map4-C2; Map5-F2; Map7-B1.
22  the king of Kedesh (one),
the king of Jokneam near Carmel (one),
23  the king of Dor – near Naphath Dor – (one),
the king of Goyim – near Gilgal – (one),
24  the king of Tirzah (one),
a total of thirty-one kings.
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