Mark 91 And he said to them, “I tell you the truth, ▼
▼ Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”there are some standing here who will not ▼
▼ The Greek negative here (οὐ μή, ou mē) is the strongest possible.experience ▼
▼ Grk “will not taste.” Here the Greek verb does not mean “sample a small amount” (as a typical English reader might infer from the word “taste”), but “experience something cognitively or emotionally; come to know something” (cf. BDAG 195 s.v. γεύομαι 2).death before they see the kingdom of God come with power.” ▼
▼ Several suggestions have been made as to the referent for the phrase the kingdom of God come with power: (1) the transfiguration itself, which immediately follows in the narrative; (2) Jesus’ resurrection and ascension; (3) the coming of the Spirit; (4) Jesus’ second coming and the establishment of the kingdom. The reference to after six days in 9:2 seems to indicate that Mark had the transfiguration in mind insofar as it was a substantial prefiguring of the consummation of the kingdom (although this interpretation is not without its problems). As such, the transfiguration was a tremendous confirmation to the disciples that even though Jesus had just finished speaking of his death (8:31; 9:31; 10:33), he was nonetheless the promised Messiah and things were proceeding according to God’s plan.
The Transfiguration2 Six days later ▼
▼ Grk “And after six days.”Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John and led them alone up a high mountain privately. And he was transfigured before them, ▼
▼ In 1st century Judaism and in the NT, there was the belief that the righteous get new, glorified bodies in order to enter heaven (1 Cor 15:42–49; 2 Cor 5:1–10). This transformation means the righteous will share the glory of God. One recalls the way Moses shared the Lord’s glory after his visit to the mountain in Exod 34. So the disciples saw Jesus transfigured, and they were getting a sneak preview of the great glory that Jesus would have (only his glory is more inherent to him as one who shares in the rule of the kingdom).3 and his clothes became radiantly white, more so than any launderer in the world could bleach them. 4 Then Elijah appeared before them along with Moses, ▼ and they were talking with Jesus. 5 So ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.Peter said to Jesus, ▼
▼ Grk “And answering, Peter said to Jesus.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant and has not been translated.“Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let us make three shelters ▼
▼ Or “dwellings,” “booths” (referring to the temporary booths constructed in the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles).▼
▼ Peter apparently wanted to celebrate the feast of Tabernacles or Booths that looked forward to the end and wanted to treat Moses, Elijah, and Jesus as equals by making three shelters (one for each). It was actually a way of expressing honor to Jesus, but the next few verses make it clear that it was not enough honor.– one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” 6 (For they were afraid, and he did not know what to say.) ▼
▼ This is a parenthetical note by the author.7 Then ▼ a cloud ▼
▼ This cloud is the cloud of God’s presence and the voice is his as well.overshadowed them, ▼
▼ Grk “And there came a cloud, surrounding them.”and a voice came from the cloud, “This is my one dear Son. ▼
▼ Grk “my beloved Son,” or “my Son, the beloved [one].” The force of ἀγαπητός (agapētos) is often “pertaining to one who is the only one of his or her class, but at the same time is particularly loved and cherished” (L&N 58.53; cf. also BDAG 7 s.v. 1).Listen to him!” ▼ 8 Suddenly when they looked around, they saw no one with them any more except Jesus.
9 As they were coming down from the mountain, he gave them orders not to tell anyone what they had seen until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead. 10 They kept this statement to themselves, discussing what this rising from the dead meant.
11 Then ▼ they asked him, ▼
▼ Grk “And they were asking him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated.“Why do the experts in the law ▼ say that Elijah must come first?” 12 He said to them, “Elijah does indeed come first, and restores all things. And why is it written that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be despised? 13 But I tell you that Elijah has certainly come, and they did to him whatever they wanted, just as it is written about him.”
The Disciples’ Failure to Heal14 When they came to the disciples, they saw a large crowd around them and experts in the law ▼ arguing with them. 15 When the whole crowd saw him, they were amazed and ran ▼
▼ Grk The participle προστρέχοντες (prostrecontes) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.at once and greeted him. 16 He asked them, “What are you arguing about with them?” 17 A member of the crowd said to him, “Teacher, I brought you my son, who is possessed by a spirit that makes him mute. 18 Whenever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, grinds his teeth, and becomes rigid. I asked your disciples to cast it out, but ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.they were not able to do so.” ▼
▼ The words “to do so” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity and stylistic reasons.19 He answered them, ▼
▼ Grk “And answering, he said to them.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant, but the phrasing of the sentence was modified slightly to make it clearer in English.“You ▼
▼ Grk “O.” The marker of direct address, ὦ (ō), is functionally equivalent to a vocative and is represented in the translation by “you.”unbelieving ▼
▼ Or “faithless.”▼ generation! How much longer ▼
▼ Grk “how long.”must I be with you? How much longer must I endure ▼ you? ▼
▼ The pronouns you…you are plural, indicating that Jesus is speaking to a group rather than an individual.Bring him to me.” 20 So they brought the boy ▼
▼ Grk “him.”to him. When the spirit saw him, it immediately threw the boy into a convulsion. He ▼
▼ Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.fell on the ground and rolled around, foaming at the mouth. 21 Jesus ▼
▼ Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.asked his father, “How long has this been happening to him?” And he said, “From childhood. 22 It has often thrown him into fire or water to destroy him. But if you are able to do anything, have compassion on us and help us.” 23 Then Jesus said to him, “‘If you are able?’ ▼
▼ Most mss (A C3 Ψ 33 Maj.) have τὸ εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι (to ei dunasai pisteusai, “if you are able to believe”), instead of τὸ εἰ δύνῃ (to ei dunē, “if you are able”; supported by א B C* L N* Δ f1 579 892 pc). Others have εἰ δύνῃ (or δυνάσαι) πιστεῦσαι (“if you are able to believe”; so D K Θ f13 28 565 al), while still others have τοῦτο εἰ δύνῃ (touto ei dunē, “if you can [do] this”; so [Ƥ45] W). The reading that best explains the rise of the others is τὸ εἰ δύνῃ. The neuter article indicates that the Lord is now quoting the boy’s father who, in v. 22, says εἴ τι δύνῃ (ei ti dunē, “if you are able to do anything”). The article is thus used anaphorically (see ExSyn 238). However, scribes could easily have overlooked this idiom and would consequently read τὸ εἰ δύνῃ as the protasis of a conditional clause of the Lord’s statement. As such, it would almost demand the infinitive πιστεῦσαι, producing the reading τὸ εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι (“if you are able to believe, all things are possible…”). But the article here seems to be meaningless, prompting other scribes to modify the text still further. Some dropped the nonsensical article, while others turned it into the demonstrative τοῦτο and dropped the infinitive. It is clear that scribes had difficulty with the original wording here, and made adjustments in various directions. What might not be so clear is the exact genealogy of the descent of all the readings. However, τὸ εἰ δύνῃ is both a hard saying, best explains the rise of the other readings, and is supported by the best witnesses. It thus rightly deserves to be considered authentic.All things are possible for the one who believes.” 24 Immediately the father of the boy cried out and said, “I believe; help my unbelief!”
25 Now when Jesus saw that a crowd was quickly gathering, he rebuked ▼
▼ Or “commanded” (often with the implication of a threat, L&N 33.331).the unclean spirit, ▼
▼ Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.saying to it, “Mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him and never enter him again.” 26 It shrieked, threw him into terrible convulsions, and came out. The boy ▼
▼ Grk “he”; the referent (the boy) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.looked so much like a corpse that many said, “He is dead!” 27 But Jesus gently took his hand and raised him to his feet, and he stood up.
28 Then, ▼ after he went into the house, his disciples asked him privately, “Why couldn’t we cast it out?” 29 He told them, “This kind can come out only by prayer.” ▼
▼ Most witnesses, even early and excellent ones (Ƥ45vid א2 A C D L W Θ Ψ f1, 13 33 Maj. lat co), have “and fasting” (καὶ νηστείᾳ, kai nēsteia) after “prayer” here. But this seems to be a motivated reading, due to the early church’s emphasis on fasting (TCGNT 85; cf., e.g., 2 Clem. 16:4; Pol. Phil 7:2; Did. 1:3; 7:4). That the most important witnesses (א* B), as well as a few others (0274 2427 k), lack καὶ νηστείᾳ, when a good reason for the omission is difficult to find, argues strongly for the shorter reading.
Second Prediction of Jesus’ Death and Resurrection30 They went out from there and passed through Galilee. But ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.Jesus ▼
▼ Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.did not want anyone to know, 31 for he was teaching his disciples and telling them, “The Son of Man will be betrayed into the hands of men. ▼
▼ The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrōpōn) is considered by some to be used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NRSV, “into human hands”; CEV, “to people”). However, because this can be taken as a specific reference to the group responsible for Jesus’ arrest, where it is unlikely women were present (cf. Matt 26:47–56; Mark 14:43–52; Luke 22:47–53; John 18:2–12), the word “men” has been retained in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” earlier in the verse.They ▼
▼ Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.will kill him, ▼
▼ Grk “They will kill him, and being killed, after…” The redundancy in the statement has been removed in the translation.and after three days he will rise.” ▼ 32 But they did not understand this statement and were afraid to ask him.
Questions About the Greatest33 Then ▼ they came to Capernaum. ▼ After Jesus ▼
▼ Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.was inside the house he asked them, “What were you discussing on the way?” 34 But they were silent, for on the way they had argued with one another about who was the greatest. 35 After he sat down, he called the twelve and said to them, “If anyone wants to be first, he must be last of all and servant of all.” 36 He took a little child and had him stand among them. Taking him in his arms, he said to them, 37 “Whoever welcomes ▼
▼ This verb, δέχομαι (decomai), is a term of hospitality (L&N 34.53).one of these little children ▼
▼ Children were very insignificant in ancient culture, so this child would be the perfect object lesson to counter the disciples’ selfish ambitions.in my name welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me does not welcome me but the one who sent me.”
On Jesus’ Side38 John said to him, “Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop him because he was not following us.” 39 But Jesus said, “Do not stop him, because no one who does a miracle in my name will be able soon afterward to say anything bad about me. 40 For whoever is not against us is for us. 41 For I tell you the truth, ▼
▼ Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”whoever gives you a cup of water because ▼
▼ Grk “in [the] name that of Christ you are.”you bear Christ’s ▼
▼ Or “bear the Messiah’s”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”▼ name will never lose his reward.
42 “If anyone causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a huge millstone ▼ ▼
▼ The punishment of drowning with a heavy weight attached is extremely gruesome and reflects Jesus’ views concerning those who cause others who believe in him to sin.tied around his neck and to be thrown into the sea. 43 If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off! It is better for you to enter into life crippled than to have ▼ two hands and go into hell, ▼
▼ The word translated hell is “Gehenna” (γέεννα, geenna), a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew words ge hinnom (“Valley of Hinnom”). This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5–6; 32:35), and it came to be used as a place where human excrement and rubbish were disposed of and burned. In the intertestamental period, it came to be used symbolically as the place of divine punishment (cf. 1 En. 27:2, 90:26; 4 Ezra 7:36). This Greek term also occurs in vv. 45, 47.to the unquenchable fire. ▼
▼ Most later mss have 9:44 here and 9:46 after v. 45: “where their worm never dies and the fire is never quenched” (identical with v. 48). Verses 44 and 46 are present in A D Θ f13 Maj. lat syp,h, but lacking in important Alexandrian mss and several others (א B C L W Δ Ψ 0274 f1 28 565 892 2427 pc co). This appears to be a scribal addition from v. 48 and is almost certainly not an original part of the Greek text of Mark. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.45 If your foot causes you to sin, cut it off! It is better to enter life lame than to have ▼ two feet and be thrown into hell. ▼ 47 If your eye causes you to sin, tear it out! ▼
▼ Grk “throw it out.”It is better to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye than to have ▼ two eyes and be thrown into hell, 48 where their worm never dies and the fire is never quenched. 49 Everyone will be salted with fire. ▼
▼ The earliest mss ([א] B L [W] Δ 0274 f1, 13 28* 565 700 pc sys sa) have the reading adopted by the translation. Codex Bezae (D) and several Itala read “Every sacrifice will be salted with salt.” The majority of other mss (A C Θ Ψ  Maj. lat syp,h) have both readings, “Everyone will be salted with fire, and every sacrifice will be salted with salt.” An early scribe may have written the LXX text of Lev 2:13 (“Every sacrifice offering of yours shall be salted with salt”) in the margin of his ms. At a later stage, copyists would either replace the text with this marginal note or add the note to the text. The longer reading thus seems to be the result of the conflation of the Alexandrian reading “salted with fire” and the Western reading “salted with salt.” The reading adopted by the text enjoys the best support and explains the other readings in the ms tradition.▼
▼ The statement everyone will be salted with fire is difficult to interpret. It may be a reference to (1) unbelievers who enter hell as punishment for rejection of Jesus, indicating that just as salt preserves so they will be preserved in their punishment in hell forever; (2) Christians who experience suffering in this world because of their attachment to Christ; (3) any person who experiences suffering in a way appropriate to their relationship to Jesus. For believers this means the suffering of purification, and for unbelievers it means hell, i.e., eternal torment.50 Salt ▼
▼ Salt was used as seasoning or fertilizer (BDAG 41 s.v. ἅλας a), or as a preservative. If salt ceased to be useful, it was thrown away. With this illustration Jesus warned about a disciple who ceased to follow him.is good, but if it loses its saltiness, ▼
▼ The difficulty of this saying is understanding how salt could lose its saltiness since its chemical properties cannot change. It is thus often assumed that Jesus was referring to chemically impure salt, perhaps a natural salt which, when exposed to the elements, had all the genuine salt leached out, leaving only the sediment or impurities behind. Others have suggested the background of the saying is the use of salt blocks by Arab bakers to line the floor of their ovens: Under the intense heat these blocks would eventually crystallize and undergo a change in chemical composition, finally being thrown out as unserviceable. A saying in the Talmud (b. Bekhorot 8b) attributed to R. Joshua ben Chananja (ca. a.d. 90), when asked the question “When salt loses its flavor, how can it be made salty again?” is said to have replied, “By salting it with the afterbirth of a mule.” He was then asked, “Then does the mule (being sterile) bear young?” to which he replied: “Can salt lose its flavor?” The point appears to be both are impossible. The saying, while admittedly late, suggests that culturally the loss of flavor by salt was regarded as an impossibility. Genuine salt can never lose its flavor. In this case the saying by Jesus here may be similar to Matt 19:24, where it is likewise impossible for the camel to go through the eye of a sewing needle.how can you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with each other.”
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