Psalms 128

1How blessed is every one of the Lord’s loyal followers,
Heb “every fearer of the Lord.”

each one who keeps his commands!
Heb “the one who walks in his ways.”

2 You
The psalmist addresses the representative God-fearing man, as indicated by the references to “your wife” (v. 3) and “the man” (v. 4), as well as the second masculine singular pronominal and verbal forms in vv. 2–6.
will eat what you worked so hard to grow.
Heb “the work of your hands, indeed you will eat.”

You will be blessed and secure.
Heb “how blessed you [will be] and it will be good for you.”

3 Your wife will be like a fruitful vine
The metaphor of the fruitful vine pictures the wife as fertile; she will give her husband numerous children (see the next line).

in the inner rooms of your house;
your children
One could translate “sons” (see Ps 127:3 and the note on the word “sons” there), but here the term seems to refer more generally to children of both genders.
will be like olive branches,
as they sit all around your table.
4 Yes indeed, the man who fears the Lord
will be blessed in this way.
Heb “look, indeed thus will the man, the fearer of the Lord, be blessed.”

5 May the Lord bless you
The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive of prayer (note the imperatives that are subordinated to this clause in vv. 5b–6a). Having described the blessings that typically come to the godly, the psalmist concludes by praying that this ideal may become reality for the representative godly man being addressed.
from Zion,
that you might see
The imperative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding jussive.
Jerusalem prosper
all the days of your life,
and that you might see
The imperative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the jussive in v. 5a.
your grandchildren.
Heb “sons to your sons.”

May Israel experience peace!
Heb “peace [be] upon Israel.” The statement is understood as a prayer (see Ps 125:5).

Psalm 129

Psalm 129. Israel affirms God’s justice and asks him to destroy the enemies of Zion.

A song of ascents.

The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120–134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101–150 (WBC), 219-21.
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