Romans 13

Submission to Civil Government

1Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except by God’s appointment,
Grk “by God.”
and the authorities that exist have been instituted by God.
2So the person who resists such authority
Grk “the authority,” referring to the authority just described.
resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will incur judgment
3(for rulers cause no fear for good conduct but for bad). Do you desire not to fear authority? Do good and you will receive its commendation, 4for it is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be in fear, for it does not bear the sword in vain. It is God’s servant to administer retribution on the wrongdoer. 5Therefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of the wrath of the authorities
Grk “its wrath”; the referent (the governing authorities) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
but also because of your conscience.
Grk “because of (the) conscience,” but the English possessive “your” helps to show whose conscience the context implies.
6For this reason you also pay taxes, for the authorities
Grk “they”; the referent (the governing authorities) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
are God’s servants devoted to governing.
Grk “devoted to this very thing.”
7Pay everyone what is owed: taxes to whom taxes are due, revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due, honor to whom honor is due.

Exhortation to Love Neighbors

8 Owe no one anything, except to love one another, for the one who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 9For the commandments,
Grk “For the…” (with the word “commandments” supplied for clarity). The Greek article (“the”) is used here as a substantiver to introduce the commands that are quoted from the second half of the Decalogue (ExSyn 238).
Do not commit adultery, do not murder, do not steal, do not covet,
A quotation from Exod 20:13–15, 17; Deut 5:17–19, 21.
(and if there is any other commandment) are summed up in this, “ Love your neighbor as yourself .”
A quotation from Lev 19:18.
10Love does no wrong to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.

Motivation to Godly Conduct

11 And do this
Grk “and this,” probably referring to the command to love (13:8–10); hence, “do” is implied from the previous verses.
because we know
The participle εἰδότες (eidotes) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.
the time, that it is already the hour for us to awake from sleep, for our salvation is now nearer than when we became believers.
12The night has advanced toward dawn; the day is near. So then we must lay aside the works of darkness, and put on the weapons of light. 13Let us live decently as in the daytime, not in carousing and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and sensuality, not in discord and jealousy. 14Instead, put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh to arouse its desires.
Grk “make no provision for the flesh unto desires.”

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